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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the year ended September 30, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File No. 1-06620

GRIFFON CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware 11-1893410
(State or other jurisdiction  (I.R.S. Employer
of incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
712 Fifth Ave, 18th FloorNew YorkNew York10019
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
   

(212) 957-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on
which registered
 
 Common Stock, $0.25 par valueGFFNew York Stock Exchange 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x
No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o
No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer   o
Non-accelerated filer
o

Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No S

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the close of business March 31, 2022, the registrant’s most recently completed second quarter, was approximately $1,026,000,000. The registrant’s closing price as reported by the New York Stock Exchange-Composite Transactions for March 31, 2022 was $20.03. The number of the registrant’s outstanding shares was 57,064,331 as of October 31, 2022.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Part III — (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14). Registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.




Special Notes Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, especially “Management’s Discussion and Analysis”, contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933. as amended, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements relate to, among other things, income (loss), earnings, cash flows, revenue, changes in operations, operating improvements, the impact of the Hunter Fan transaction, the outcome of our strategic alternatives review process, industries in which Griffon Corporation (the “Company” or “Griffon”) operates and the United States and global economies. Statements in this Form 10-K that are not historical are hereby identified as “forward-looking statements” and may be indicated by words or phrases such as “anticipates,” “supports,” “plans,” “projects,” “expects,” “believes,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “hope,” “forecast,” “management is of the opinion,” “may,” “will,” “estimates,” “intends,” “explores,” “opportunities,” the negative of these expressions, use of the future tense and similar words or phrases. Such forward-looking statements are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, among others: the impact of the strategic alternatives review process announced in May 2022, any transaction that may result from that process and the possibility that the process may not result in any transaction; current economic conditions and uncertainties in the housing, credit and capital markets; Griffon’s ability to achieve expected savings from cost control, restructuring, integration and disposal initiatives; the ability to identify and successfully consummate, and integrate, value-adding acquisition opportunities (including, in particular, integration of the Hunter Fan acquisition); increasing competition and pricing pressures in the markets served by Griffon’s operating companies; the ability of Griffon’s operating companies to expand into new geographic and product markets, and to anticipate and meet customer demands for new products and product enhancements and innovations; increases in the cost or lack of availability of raw materials such as resin, wood and steel, components or purchased finished goods, including any potential impact on costs or availability resulting from tariffs; changes in customer demand or loss of a material customer at one of Griffon’s operating companies; the potential impact of seasonal variations and uncertain weather patterns on certain of Griffon’s businesses; political events that could impact the worldwide economy; a downgrade in Griffon’s credit ratings; changes in international economic conditions including interest rate and currency exchange fluctuations; the reliance by certain of Griffon’s businesses on particular third party suppliers and manufacturers to meet customer demands; the relative mix of products and services offered by Griffon’s businesses, which impacts margins and operating efficiencies; short-term capacity constraints or prolonged excess capacity; unforeseen developments in contingencies, such as litigation, regulatory and environmental matters; Griffon’s ability to adequately protect and maintain the validity of patent and other intellectual property rights; the cyclical nature of the businesses of certain of Griffon’s operating companies; possible terrorist threats and actions and their impact on the global economy; the impact of COVID-19, or some other future pandemic, on the U.S. and the global economy, including business disruptions, reductions in employment and an increase in business and operating facility failures, specifically among our customers and suppliers; Griffon’s ability to service and refinance its debt; and the impact of recent and future legislative and regulatory changes, including, without limitation, changes in tax laws. Such statements reflect the views of the Company with respect to future events and are subject to these and other risks, as previously disclosed in the Company’s Securities and Exchange Commission filings. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made. Griffon undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
1


(Unless otherwise indicated, any reference to years or year-end refers to the fiscal year ending September 30 and U.S. dollars and non-U.S. currencies are in thousands, except per share data)

PART I
Item 1. Business

Overview

Griffon Corporation (the “Company” or “Griffon”, "we", "us") is a diversified management and holding company that conducts business through wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company, founded in 1959, is a Delaware corporation headquartered in New York, N.Y. and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE:GFF).

Business Strategy
We own and operate, and seek to acquire, businesses in multiple industries and geographic markets. Our objective is to maintain leading positions in the markets we serve by providing innovative, branded products with superior quality and industry-leading service. We place emphasis on our iconic and well-respected brands, which helps to differentiate us and our offerings from our competitors and strengthens our relationship with our customers and those who ultimately use our products.

Through operating a diverse portfolio of businesses, we expect to reduce variability caused by external factors such as market cyclicality, seasonality, and weather. We achieve diversity by providing various product offerings and brands through multiple sales and distribution channels and conducting business across multiple countries which we consider our home markets.

Griffon oversees the operations of its subsidiaries, allocates resources among them and manages their capital structures. Griffon provides direction and assistance to its subsidiaries in connection with acquisition and growth opportunities as well as in connection with divestitures. As long-term investors, having substantial experience in a variety of industries, our intent is to continue the growth and strengthening of our existing businesses, and to diversify further through investments in our businesses and through acquisitions.

Over the past five years, we have undertaken a series of transformative transactions. We divested our specialty plastics business in 2018 to focus on our core markets and improve our free cash flow conversion. In our Consumer and Professional Products ("CPP") segment, we expanded the scope of our brands through the acquisition of Hunter Fan Company ("Hunter") on January 24, 2022 and ClosetMaid, LLC ("ClosetMaid") in 2018. In our Home and Building Products ("HBP") segment, we acquired CornellCookson, Inc. ("CornellCookson") in 2018, which has been integrated into Clopay Corporation ("Clopay"), creating a leading North American manufacturer and marketer of residential garage doors and sectional commercial doors, and rolling steel doors and grille products under brands that include Clopay, Ideal, Cornell and Cookson. We established an integrated headquarters for CPP in Orlando, Florida for our portfolio of leading brands that includes AMES, Hunter, True Temper and ClosetMaid. CPP is well positioned to fulfill its ongoing mission of Bringing Brands Together™ with the leading brands in consumer and professional tools; residential, industrial and commercial fans; home storage and organization products; and products that enhance indoor and outdoor lifestyles.

On May 16, 2022, Griffon announced that its Board of Directors initiated a process to review a comprehensive range of strategic alternatives to maximize shareholder value including a sale, merger, divestiture, recapitalization or other strategic transaction. This process is active and discussions with potential counterparties are ongoing with respect to a number of these options. The Committee on Strategic Considerations, a committee comprised of independent directors who serve on Griffon's Board, is overseeing the process and working with Griffon's management and Goldman Sachs & Co, LLC. the Company's financial advisor. There is no assurance that the process will result in any transaction being entered into or consummated.

On September 27, 2021, we announced we were exploring strategic alternatives for our Defense Electronics ("DE") segment, which consisted of our Telephonics Corporation ("Telephonics") subsidiary. On June 27, 2022, we completed the sale of Telephonics to TTM Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ:TTMI) ("TTM") for $330,000 in cash, excluding customary post-closing adjustments, primarily related to working capital. Griffon classified the results of operations of our Telephonics business as a discontinued operation in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented and classified the related assets and liabilities associated with the discontinued operation in the consolidated balance sheets. Accordingly, all references made to results and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are to Griffon's continuing operations, unless noted otherwise.
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On December 17, 2021, Griffon entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Hunter, a market leader in residential ceiling, commercial, and industrial fans, from MidOcean Partners (“MidOcean”) for a contractual purchase price of $845,000 and completed the acquisition on January 24, 2022. Hunter, part of our CPP segment, complements and diversifies our portfolio of leading consumer brands and products. We financed the acquisition of Hunter with a new $800,000 seven-year Term Loan B facility; we used a combination of cash on hand and revolver borrowings to fund the balance of the purchase price and related acquisition and debt expenditures.

Update of COVID-19 on Our Business

The health and safety of our employees, our customers and their families is always a high priority for Griffon. As of the date of this filing, all of Griffon's facilities are fully operational. Our supply chain experienced and, to some extent, is still recovering from certain disruptions which, together with other factors such as a shortage of labor, resulted in longer delivery lead times and restricted manufacturing capacity for certain of our products. When COVID-19 struck, we implemented a variety of new policies and procedures, including additional cleaning, social distancing, staggered shifts and prohibiting or significantly restricting on-site visitors, to minimize the risk to our employees of contracting COVID-19. While many of these precautions have been relaxed or eliminated as the health risk of COVID-19 has decreased, we would not hesitate to reinstitute and/or modify these policies and procedures as necessary should the health risk return to an unacceptable level. In such event, our businesses or our suppliers could be required by government authorities to temporarily cease operations; might be limited in their production capacity due to complying with restrictions relating to the operation of businesses to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19; or could suffer their own supply chain disruptions, impacting their ability to continue to supply us with the quantity of materials required by us.

We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take actions that impact our operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers and shareholders. While we are unable to determine or predict the nature, duration or scope of the overall impact COVID-19 will have on our businesses, results of operations, liquidity or capital resources, we believe it is important to discuss where our company stands today, how we have responded (and will continue to respond) to COVID 19 and how our operations and financial condition may change as COVID-19 evolves.

Griffon believes it has adequate liquidity to invest in its existing businesses and execute its business plan, while managing its capital structure on both a short-term and long-term basis. At September 30, 2022, $290,385 of revolver capacity was available under Griffon's Credit Agreement and Griffon had cash and equivalents of $120,184.
Other Business Highlights

In August 2020 Griffon completed the Public Offering of 8,700,000 shares of our common stock for total net proceeds of $178,165. The Company used a portion of the net proceeds to repay outstanding borrowings under its Credit Agreement. The Company used the remainder of the proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes.

During 2020, Griffon issued, at par, $1,000,000 of 5.75% Senior Notes due in 2028 (the “2028 Senior Notes”). Proceeds from the 2028 Senior Notes were used to redeem the $1,000,000 of 5.25% Senior Notes due in 2022.

In January 2020, Griffon amended its credit agreement to increase the total amount available for borrowing from $350,000 to $400,000, extend its maturity date from March 22, 2021 to March 22, 2025 and modify certain other provisions of the facility (the "Credit Agreement").

In November 2019, Griffon announced the development of a next-generation business platform for CPP to enhance the growth, efficiency, and competitiveness of its U.S. operations, and on November 12, 2020, Griffon announced that CPP is broadening this strategic initiative to include additional North American facilities, the AMES United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia businesses, and a manufacturing facility in China. On April 28, 2022, Griffon announced a reduced scope and an accelerated timeline for the initiative, which was completed in fiscal 2022. These changes reflect the rapid progress made with the initiative, and reduced investment in facilities expansion and equipment given recent significant increases in construction and equipment costs. Any remaining expenditures, after the end of fiscal 2022, including those related to the deployment of AMES' global information systems, will be included in the continuing operations of the business. Future investments in equipment, particularly for automation, will be part of normal-course annual capital expenditures.

This initiative included three key development areas. First, certain AMES U.S. and global operations were consolidated to optimize facilities footprint and talent. Second, strategic investments in automation and facilities expansion were made to increase the efficiency of our manufacturing and fulfillment operations, and support e-commerce growth. Third, multiple
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independent information systems were unified into a single data and analytics platform, which will serve the whole AMES global enterprise.

We continue to expect that this initiative will result in annual cash savings of $25,000. Realization of expected cash savings will begin in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. The cost to implement this new business platform, over the duration of the project, included one-time charges of approximately $51,869 and capital investments of approximately $15,000, net of future proceeds from the sale of exited facilities.

In June 2018, Clopay acquired CornellCookson, a leading provider of rolling steel service doors, fire doors, and grilles, for an effective purchase price of approximately $170,000. This transaction strengthened Clopay's strategic portfolio with a line of commercial rolling steel door products to complement Clopay's sectional door offerings in the commercial sector, and expanded the Clopay network of professional dealers focused on the commercial market.

In March 2018, we announced the combination of the ClosetMaid operations with those of AMES, which improved operational efficiencies by leveraging the complementary products, customers, warehousing and distribution, manufacturing, and sourcing capabilities of the two businesses.

In February 2018, we closed on the sale of our Clopay Plastics Products ("Plastics") business to Berry Global, Inc. ("Berry") for approximately $465,000, net of certain post-closing adjustments, thus exiting the specialty plastics industry that the Company had entered when it acquired Clopay Corporation in 1986. This transaction provided immediate liquidity and improved Griffon's cash flow given the historically higher capital needs of the Plastics operations as compared to Griffon’s remaining businesses.

In October 2017, we acquired ClosetMaid from Emerson Electric Co. (NYSE:EMR) for an effective purchase price of approximately $165,000. ClosetMaid, founded in 1965, is a leading North American manufacturer and marketer of wood and wire closet organization, general living storage and wire garage storage products, and sells to some of the largest home center retail chains, mass merchandisers, and direct-to-builder professional installers in North America. We believe that ClosetMaid is the leading brand in its category, with excellent consumer recognition.

We believe these actions have established a solid foundation for growth in sales, profit, and cash generation and bolster Griffon’s platforms for opportunistic strategic acquisitions.

Other Acquisitions and Dispositions
On December 22, 2020, AMES acquired Quatro Design Pty Ltd (“Quatro”), a leading Australian manufacturer and supplier of glass fiber reinforced concrete landscaping products for residential, commercial, and public sector projects for a purchase price of AUD $3,500 (approximately $2,700). Quatro contributed approximately $5,000 in revenue in the first twelve months after the acquisition.

On November 29, 2019, AMES acquired Vatre Group Limited ("Apta"), a leading U.K. supplier of innovative garden pottery and associated products sold to leading U.K. and Ireland garden centers for approximately $10,500 (GBP 8,750), inclusive of a post-closing working capital adjustment, net of cash acquired. This acquisition broadens AMES' product offerings in the U.K. market and increases its in-country operational footprint. Apta contributed approximately $20,000 in revenue in the first twelve months after the acquisition.

On February 13, 2018, AMES acquired Kelkay, a leading U.K. manufacturer and distributor of decorative outdoor landscaping products sold to garden centers, retailers and grocers in the U.K. and Ireland. This acquisition broadened AMES' product offerings in the market and increased its in-country operational footprint.

In November 2017, Griffon acquired Harper Brush Works, a leading U.S. manufacturer of cleaning products for professional, home, and industrial use, from Horizon Global (NYSE:HZN). This acquisition expanded the AMES line of long-handle tools in North America to include brooms, brushes, and other cleaning products.

During fiscal 2017, Griffon also completed a number of other acquisitions to expand and enhance AMES' global footprint. In the United Kingdom, Griffon acquired La Hacienda, an outdoor living brand of unique heating and garden décor products, in July 2017. The acquisition of La Hacienda, together with the February 2018 acquisition of Kelkay and November 2020 acquisition of Apta, provides AMES with additional brands and a platform for growth in the U.K. market and access to leading garden centers, retailers, and grocers in the UK and Ireland. In Australia, Griffon acquired Hills Home Living, the iconic brand
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of clotheslines and home products, from Hills Limited (ASX:HIL) in December 2016, and in September 2017 Griffon acquired Tuscan Path, an Australian provider of pots, planters, pavers, decorative stone, and garden décor products. The Hills, Tuscan Path and December, 2020 Quatro acquisitions broadened AMES' outdoor living and lawn and garden business, strengthening AMES’ portfolio of brands and its market position in Australia and New Zealand.

Further Information
Griffon posts and makes available, free of charge through its website at www.griffon.com, its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as well as press releases, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are published or filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The information found on Griffon's website is not part of this or any other report it files with or furnishes to the SEC.

For information regarding revenue, profit and total assets of each segment, see the Reportable Segments footnote in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Reportable Segments:
Griffon conducts its operations through two reportable segments:

Consumer and Professional Products (“CPP”) is a leading North American manufacturer and a global provider of branded consumer and professional tools; residential, industrial and commercial fans; home storage and organization products; and products that enhance indoor and outdoor lifestyles. CPP sells products globally through a portfolio of leading brands including AMES, since 1774, Hunter, since 1886, True Temper, and ClosetMaid.

Home and Building Products ("HBP") conducts its operations through Clopay. Founded in 1964, Clopay is the largest manufacturer and marketer of garage doors and rolling steel doors in North America. Residential and commercial sectional garage doors are sold through professional dealers and leading home center retail chains throughout North America under the brands Clopay, Ideal, and Holmes. Rolling steel door and grille products designed for commercial, industrial, institutional, and retail use are sold under the Cornell and Cookson brands.
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Reportable Segments:
 
CONSUMER AND PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTS

Consumer and Professional Products (“CPP”) is a leading North American manufacturer and a global provider of branded consumer and professional tools; residential, industrial and commercial fans; home storage and organization products; and products that enhance indoor and outdoor lifestyles. CPP sells products globally through a portfolio of leading brands including AMES, Hunter and ClosetMaid. AMES, founded in Massachusetts in 1774, has the distinction of being one of the oldest companies in continuous operation in the United States. Over its long life, AMES has grown organically and through the acquisition of other leading and historic tool businesses such as True Temper, Union Tools, and Garant. Today, AMES is a leading manufacturer of long-handled tools and landscaping products for homeowners and professionals in North America, and also provides these products in key global markets including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K., and Ireland. Under the ClosetMaid brand, CPP is the leading provider of wood and wire closet organization, general living storage, and wire garage storage products in the United States. Under the Hunter brand, since 1886, CPP is a leading provider of residential, industrial and commercial fans in the United States.

Since the acquisition of AMES by Griffon in 2010, CPP has benefited from strategic acquisitions that have expanded its product portfolio and geographic presence. The Hunter Fan, ClosetMaid, Southern Patio, and Harper Brush Works acquisitions added to, or expanded CPP's product categories in North America to include residential, industrial and commercial fans, storage and organization, decorative landscaping, and cleaning products. The acquisitions of Northcote, Cyclone, Hills, Nylex, Tuscan Path and Quatro in Australia established AMES as a leading supplier of tools and landscaping categories in the Australian market. As a result of the acquisitions of Kelkay, La Hacienda and Apta, the U.K. and Ireland have become key markets for AMES products.

CPP has approximately 3,200 employees worldwide.
 
Brands

CPP's brands are among the most recognized across its primary product categories in North America, Australia and the United Kingdom. Its brand portfolio for long-handled tools, outdoor décor, and landscaping product includes AMES®, True Temper®, Garant®, Harper®, UnionTools®, Westmix™, Cyclone®, Southern Patio®, Northcote Pottery™, Nylex®, Hills®, Kelkay®, Tuscan Path®, La Hacienda®, Kelso™, Dynamic Design®™, Apta® and Quatro Design®. Contractor-oriented tool brands include Razor-Back® Professional Tools and Jackson® Professional Tools. CPP's home organization, general living storage, and garage storage products are sold primarily under the ClosetMaid® brand. CPP's residential, industrial and commercial fan products are sold under the Hunter Fan and Casablanca brands.

This strong portfolio of brands enables CPP to build and maintain long-standing relationships with leading retailers and distributors. In addition, given the breadth of its brand portfolio and product category depth, CPP is able to offer specific, differentiated branding strategies for key retail customers. These strategies focus on enhancement of brand value, with the goal of de-commoditizing CPP products through identity and functionality elements that makes each top brand unique, attractive and visually recognizable by the consumer.

Products
 
CPP manufactures and markets a broad portfolio of long-handled tools, landscaping products, home organization products and residential, industrial and commercial fans. This portfolio contains many iconic brands and is anchored by six core product categories: seasonal outdoor tools, project tools, outdoor décor and watering, home organization, fans and cleaning products. As a result of brand portfolio recognition, outstanding product quality, industry leading service and strong customer relationships, CPP has earned market-leading positions in its six core product categories. The following is a brief description of CPP's primary product lines:

Seasonal Outdoor Tools
 
Long-Handled Tools: An extensive line of engineered tools including shovels, spades, scoops, rakes, hoes, cultivators, weeders, post hole diggers, scrapers, edgers and forks, marketed under leading brand names including AMES®, True Temper®, UnionTools®, Garant®, Cyclone® and Kelso™, as well as contractor-oriented brands including Razor-Back® Jackson® and Darby™.

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Wheelbarrows:  AMES designs, develops and manufactures a full line of wheelbarrows and lawn carts, primarily under the AMES®, True Temper®, Jackson® Professional Tools, UnionTools®, Garant® and Westmix™ brand names. The products range in size, material (poly and steel), tray form, tire type, handle length and color based on the needs of homeowners, landscapers and contractors.

Snow Tools:  A complete line of snow tools is marketed under the True Temper®, Garant® and Union Tools® brand names. The snow tool line includes shovels, pushers, roof rakes, sled sleigh shovels, scoops and ice scrapers.

Pruning: The pruning line is made up of pruners, loppers, shears, and other tools sold primarily under the True Temper®, Cyclone® and Garant® brand names.

Project Tools

Striking Tools:  Axes, picks, mattocks, mauls, wood splitters, sledgehammers, pry bars and repair handles make up the striking tools product line. These products are marketed under the True Temper®, AMES®, Cyclone®, Garant®, Jackson® Professional Tools and Razor-Back® Professional Tools brand names.

Hand Tools:  Hammers, screwdrivers, pliers, adjustable wrenches, handsaws, tape measures, levels, clamps, and other traditional hand tools make up this product line. These products are marketed under the Trojan®, Cyclone® and Supercraft® brand names. In addition, gardening hand tools, such as trowels, cultivators, weeders and other specialty garden hand tools, are marketed under the AMES® brand name.

Outdoor Décor and Watering

Planters and Lawn Accessories:  AMES is a designer, manufacturer and distributor of indoor and outdoor planters and accessories, sold under the Southern Patio®, Northcote Pottery™, Tuscan Path, La Hacienda®, Hills®, Kelkay®, Quatro Design® and Dynamic Design®™ brand names, as well as various private label brands. The range of planter sizes (from 6 to 32 inches) is available in various designs, colors and materials.

Garden Hose and Storage:  AMES offers a wide range of manufactured and sourced garden hoses and hose reels under the AMES®, NeverLeak® and Nylex® brand names.

Home Organization: AMES designs, manufactures and sells a comprehensive portfolio of wire and wood shelving, containers, storage cabinets and other closet and home organization accessories primarily under the highly recognized ClosetMaid® brand name and other private label brands. Wire products include wire shelving and hardware, wire accessories and kitchen storage products. Wire product brands include Maximum Load®, SuperSlide® and ShelfTrack®. Wood solutions include closet systems, cube storage, storage furniture and cabinets. Selected wood product brands include MasterSuite®, Suite Symphony®™, ExpressShelf®, Style+®, and SpaceCreations®.

Fans: CPP designs and sells residential, industrial and commercial fans under the Hunter Fan and Casablanca brand names.

Cleaning Products: CPP offers a complete line of cleaning products for professional, home, and industrial use, including brooms, brushes, squeegees, and other cleaning products, primarily under the Harper® brand.

Customers

CPP sells products throughout North America, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K. and Ireland through (1) home centers, such as The Home Depot, Inc. (“Home Depot”), Lowe’s Companies Inc. (“Lowe’s”), Rona Inc., Bunnings Warehouse ("Bunnings") and Woodies (with the average length of the relationship with these customers being approximately 30 years); (2) mass market, specialty, and hardware retailers including Tractor Supply Corporation (“Tractor Supply”), Wal-Mart Stores Inc. ("Walmart"), Target Corporation ("Target"), Canadian Tire Corporation, Limited ("Canadian Tire"), Costco Wholesale Corporation ("Costco"), Ace, Do-It-Best and True Value Company; (3) industrial distributors, such as W.W. Grainger, Inc. and ORS Nasco; (4) homebuilders, such as D.R. Horton, KB Home, Lennar and NVR, Inc.; and (5) E-commerce platforms, such as Amazon Inc. (“Amazon”), Wayfair Inc., (“Wayfair), Hayneedle Inc., “(Hayneedle”), Overstock Inc. (“Overstock”) , and Spreetail LLC. (“Spreetail”).
 
Home Depot, Lowe's, Menards and Bunnings are significant customers of CPP. The loss of any of these customers would have a material adverse effect on the CPP business and on Griffon.
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Product Development
 
CPP product development efforts focus on both new products and product line extensions. CPP continually improves existing products as well as develops new products to satisfy consumer needs, expand revenue opportunities, maintain or extend competitive advantages, increase market opportunity and reduce production costs. Products are developed through in-house industrial design and engineering staffs to introduce new products and product line extensions that are timely and cost effective.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
CPP's sales organization is structured by product line and distribution channel in the U.S., and by country internationally. In the U.S., a dedicated team of sales professionals is provided for each of the large retail customers. Offices are maintained adjacent to each of the two largest customers’ headquarters, supported by a shared in-house sales analyst. In addition, sales professionals are assigned to domestic, wholesale and industrial distribution channels. Sales teams located in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, Mexico and Ireland handle sales in each of their respective regions. In Australia, a dedicated team of sales professionals is provided for the largest retail customer. CPP has made significant investments in automation, facilities expansion and fulfillment operations to support e-commerce growth.

Raw Materials and Suppliers
 
CPP's primary raw material inputs include resin (primarily polypropylene and high density polyethylene), wood (particleboard and hardwoods including ash, hickory and poplar logs) and steel (hot rolled, cold rolled, and wire rod). All raw materials are generally available from a number of sources. Certain components are purchased, such as heavy forged components and wheelbarrow tires. Most final assembly is completed internally in order to ensure consistent quality. CPP also sources certain finished goods, primarily in storage and organization, outdoor décor, residential, industrial and commercial fans, and tools for non-North American locations.

Competition
 
The long-handled tools and landscaping product industry is highly competitive and fragmented. Most competitors consist of small, privately-held companies focusing on a single product category. Some competitors, such as Fiskars Corporation in the hand tool and pruning tool market and Truper Herramientas S.A. de C.V. in the long-handled and garden tool space, compete in various tool categories. Suncast Corporation competes in the hose reel and accessory market, and more recently in the long-handled plastic snow shovel category. In addition, there is competition from imported or sourced products from China, India and other low-cost producing countries, particularly in long-handled tools, wheelbarrows, planters, striking tools and pruning tools.
 
The home storage and organizational solutions industry is also highly fragmented. CPP, primarily under the ClosetMaid brands, sells through retail, direct to consumer (e-commerce category) and direct to installer (building) channels and competes with a significant number of companies across each of these unique channels. Principal competition for retail wire products is from Newell Brands, Inc. through their Rubbermaid® product line. FirstService Brands, Inc. sells competing wood solutions under the brand California Closets®, but does not sell through the retail or direct to consumer channels.

The residential, industrial, and commercial fan industry is fragmented. CPP, under the highly recognized Hunter brand, sells through direct to consumer (e-commerce category), retail, and direct to installer (industrial and commercial) channels. CPP's principal competitors in the consumer ceiling fan market are retailer house brands such as Hampton Bay in The Home Depot and Harbor Breeze in Lowe’s, followed by Minka Air. In the industrial and commercial fan space, principal competitors are Big Ass Fans, Rite-Hite, Macro Air, and Minka Air.

CPP differentiates itself and provides the best value to customers through its successful history of innovation, dependable supply chain and high on-time delivery rates, quality, product performance, and highly recognized product brands. CPP's size, depth and breadth of product offering, category knowledge, research and development (“R&D”) investment, service and its ability to react to sudden changes in demand from seasonal weather patterns, especially during harsh winter months, are competitive advantages. Offshore manufacturers lack sufficient product innovation, capacity, proximity to market and distribution capabilities to service large retailers or to efficiently and effectively compete in highly seasonal, weather related product categories.

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Manufacturing and Distribution
 
CPP has a combination of internal and external, and domestic and foreign, manufacturing sources from which it sources products for sale in the markets it serves. Principal North American manufacturing facilities include 644,000 square feet of manufacturing operations in Harrisburg and Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, a 676,000 square foot facility in Ocala, Florida, and a 353,000 square foot manufacturing center in St. Francois, Quebec, Canada. CPP operates smaller manufacturing facilities, including wood mills, at several other locations in the United States, and internationally in Jiangmen, China; and Grafton, New South Wales and Wonthaggi, Victoria, both in Australia.

CPP has three principal distribution facilities in the United States, a 1.4 million square foot facility in Carlisle, Pennsylvania a 997,000 square foot facility in Reno, Nevada and a 600,000 square foot facility in Byhalia, MS. Finished goods are transported to these facilities from both North American manufacturing sites and from North American ports by both an internal fleet, as well as over the road trucking and rail. Additionally, light assembly is performed at the Carlisle and Reno locations. Smaller distribution centers are also strategically located in the U.S. in Ocala, Florida, and internationally in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and Ireland.
 
HOME AND BUILDING PRODUCTS
 
The HBP segment consists of Clopay. Founded in 1964 and acquired by Griffon in 1986, Clopay has grown organically and through acquisitions to become the largest manufacturer and marketer of garage doors and rolling steel doors in North America. Clopay also manufactures a complete line of entry door systems uniquely designed to complement its popular residential garage door styles. The majority of Clopay's sales come from home remodeling and renovation projects, with the balance from commercial construction and new residential housing construction. Sales into the home remodeling market are driven by the aging of the housing stock, existing home sales activity, and the trends of improving both home appearance and energy efficiency. Sales into the commercial market are driven by the aging of nonresidential buildings, including warehouses, institutional and industrial facilities, increased business activity, changes to building codes, security of facilities and trends of improving function and performance.
 
Clopay has approximately 2,900 employees.

Brands
 
Clopay brings over 50 years of experience and innovation to the residential and sectional garage door industry, and has over 100 years of experience in the rolling steel industry. Residential and commercial sectional products are sold under market-leading brands including Clopay®, America’s Favorite Garage Doors®, Holmes Garage Door Company® and IDEAL Door®. Clopay commercial rolling steel door brands include Cornell®, Cookson® and Clopay®.

Products and Service
 
Clopay manufactures a broad line of residential sectional garage doors with a variety of options, at varying prices. Clopay offers garage doors made primarily from steel, plastic composite and wood, and also sells related products, such as garage door openers manufactured by third parties. Clopay also offers a complete line of entry door systems uniquely designed to complement its popular residential garage door styles.
 
Commercial door products manufactured and marketed by Clopay include rolling steel service doors, fire doors, shutters, steel security grilles, and room dividers. Clopay also manufactures and markets commercial sectional doors, which are similar to residential garage doors, but are designed to meet the more demanding performance specifications of a commercial application.
 
Customers
 
Clopay is currently the exclusive supplier of residential garage doors throughout North America to Home Depot and Menards. The loss of either of these customers would have a material adverse effect on Clopay and Griffon. Clopay distributes its garage doors directly to customers from its manufacturing facilities and through its distribution centers located throughout the U.S. and Canada. These distribution centers allow Clopay to maintain an inventory of garage doors near installing dealers and provide quick-ship service to retail and professional dealer customers.

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Product Development
 
Clopay product development efforts focus on both new products and improvements to existing products. Products are developed through in-house design and engineering staffs.
 
Clopay operates technical development centers where its research engineers design and develop new products and technologies and perform durability and performance testing of new and existing products, materials and finishes. Clopay continually improves its door offerings through these development efforts, focusing on characteristics such as strength, design, operating performance and durability, and energy efficiency. The process engineering teams also work to develop new manufacturing processes and production techniques aimed at improving manufacturing efficiencies and ensuring quality-made products.

Sales and Marketing
 
The Clopay sales and marketing organization supports our customers, consults on new product development and aggressively markets door solutions, with a primary focus on the North American market. Clopay maintains a strong promotional presence, in both traditional and digital media.

Clopay customers utilize a proprietary residential door web application, the MyDoor® mobile enabled app, that guides consumers through an easy to use visualization and pricing program, allowing them to select the optimal door for their home. For Clopay's commercial products, Clopay's Commercial Door Quoter (CDQ®™) and CornellCookson's WebGen systems are available to assist our professional dealers streamline their quoting and submittal process for greater productivity and back office efficiency improvement.

Raw Materials and Suppliers
 
The principal raw material used in Clopay's manufacturing is galvanized steel. Clopay also utilizes certain hardware components, as well as wood and insulated foam. All raw materials are generally available from a number of sources.
 
Competition
 
The sectional garage door and commercial rolling steel door industry includes several large national manufacturers and many smaller, regional and local manufacturers. Clopay competes on the basis of service, quality, price, brand awareness and product design.
 
Clopay brand names are widely recognized in the building products industry. Clopay believes that it has earned a reputation among installing dealers and retailers for producing a broad range of innovative, high-quality doors with industry leading lead times. Clopay's market position and brand recognition are key marketing tools for expanding its customer base, leveraging its distribution network and increasing its market share.
 
Manufacturing and Distribution
 
Clopay's principal manufacturing facilities include 1,480,000 square feet in Troy and Russia, Ohio, 279,000 square feet in Mountain Top, Pennsylvania and 163,000 square feet in Goodyear, Arizona.
Clopay distributes its products through a wide range of distribution channels, including a national network of 52 distribution centers with a total of approximately 1,200,000 square feet. Additionally, products are sold to over 2,500 independent professional installing dealers and to major home center retail chains including Home Depot and Menards (with the average length of the relationship with these customers being greater than 25 years). Clopay maintains strong relationships with its installing dealers and believes it is the largest supplier of sectional garage doors to the retail and professional installing channels in North America and the largest supplier of rolling steel door products in North America. Clopay is currently the exclusive supplier of residential garage doors throughout North America to Home Depot and Menards.

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Discontinued Operation:

DEFENSE ELECTRONICS
 
On September 27, 2021, Griffon announced it was exploring strategic alternatives for its Defense Electronics segment, which consisted of Telephonics Corporation ("Telephonics"), and on June 27, 2022, Griffon completed the sale of Telephonics to TTM for $330,000, excluding certain customary post-closing adjustments, primarily related to working capital. Griffon classified the results of operations of the Telephonics business as a discontinued operation in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented and classified the related assets and liabilities associated with the discontinued operation as held for sale in the consolidated balance sheets. Accordingly, all references made to results and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are to Griffon's continuing operations unless noted otherwise.

Griffon Corporation
 
Employees

As of September 30, 2022, Griffon and its subsidiaries employ approximately 6,200 employees located primarily throughout the U.S., Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and China.  Generally, the total number of employees of Griffon and its subsidiaries does not significantly fluctuate throughout the year.  However, acquisition activity or the opening of new branches or lines of business, or other changes in the level of Griffon's business activity (for instance, based on actual or anticipated customer demand or other factors), could require staffing level adjustments.

Approximately 70 of these employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements in the U.S., with the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union (an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations), and the United Food & Commercial Workers International Union.  Additionally, approximately 200 employees in Canada are represented by the Trade Union Advisory Committee. Griffon believes its relationships with its employees are satisfactory.

In managing its human capital resources, Griffon aims to attract a qualified workforce through an inclusive and accessible recruiting process that utilizes online recruiting platforms, campus outreach, internships and job fairs. Griffon also seeks to retain employees by offering competitive wages, benefits and training opportunities, as well as promoting a safe and healthy workplace. Griffon and all of its businesses strictly comply with all applicable state, local and international laws governing nondiscrimination in employment in every location in which Griffon and its businesses have facilities. This applies to all terms and conditions of employment, including recruiting, hiring, placement, promotion, termination, layoff, recall, transfer, leaves of absence, compensation and training. All applicants and employees are treated with the same high level of respect regardless of their gender, ethnicity, religion, national origin, age, marital status, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability or protected veteran status.

Regulation
 
Griffon’s operations are subject to various environmental, health, and employee safety laws and regulations. Griffon believes that it is in material compliance with these laws and regulations. Historically, compliance with environmental, health, and employee safety laws and regulations have not materially affected, and are not expected to materially affect, Griffon’s capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. Nevertheless, Griffon cannot guarantee that, in the future, it will not incur additional costs for compliance or that such costs will not be material.
 
Customers
 
A small number of customers account for, and are expected to continue to account for, a substantial portion of Griffon’s consolidated revenue. In 2022, Home Depot represented 13% of Griffon’s consolidated revenue, 19% of CPP's revenue and 7% of HBP's revenue.

No other customer accounted for 10% or more of consolidated revenue. Future operating results will continue to substantially depend on the success of Griffon’s largest customers and Griffon's relationships with them. Orders from these customers are subject to change and may fluctuate materially. The loss of all or a portion of volume from any one of these customers could have a material adverse impact on Griffon’s financial results, liquidity and operations.


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Seasonality
 
Griffon's revenue and earnings are generally lowest in our first and fourth quarters ending December 31, and September 30, respectively, and highest in the second and third quarters ending March 31, and June 30, respectively, primarily due to the seasonality within the CPP and HBP businesses. In 2022, with the addition of Hunter Fan, 58% (55%, excluding Hunter Fan sales) of CPP's' sales occurred during the second and third quarters compared to 53% in both 2021 and 2020. HBP’s business is driven by renovation and construction during warm weather, which is historically at reduced levels during the winter months, generally in our second quarter.

Demand for lawn and garden products is influenced by weather, particularly weekend weather during peak gardening season. AMES' sales volume can be adversely affected by certain weather patterns such as unseasonably cool or warm temperatures, hurricanes, water shortages or floods. In addition, lack of snow or lower than average snowfall during the winter season may result in reduced sales of certain AMES' products, such as snow shovels and other snow tools. As a result, AMES' results of operations, financial results and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas
 
Segment and operating results are included in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
For geographic financial information, see the Reportable Segment footnote in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
 
Griffon’s non-U.S. businesses are primarily in Canada, Australia, the U.K., Ireland and China.

Research and Development
 
Griffon’s businesses are encouraged to improve existing products as well as develop new products to satisfy customer needs; expand revenue opportunities; maintain or extend competitive advantages; increase market share and reduce production costs. R&D costs, not recoverable under contractual arrangements, are charged to expense as incurred.

Intellectual Property
 
Griffon follows a practice of actively protecting and enforcing its proprietary rights in the U.S. and throughout the world where Griffon’s products are sold. All intellectual property information presented in this section is as of September 30, 2022.
Trademarks are of significant importance to Griffon’s HBP and CPP businesses. With 50 years of experience and innovation in the garage door industry, and over 100 years of experience in the rolling steel door industry, HBP has a significant level of goodwill in its strong family of brands, including: Clopay®, America’s Favorite Doors®; Holmes Garage Door Company®; IDEAL Door®; and the Cornell® and Cookson® commercial door brands. Principal global and regional trademarks used by CPP for its tool and landscape products include AMES®, True Temper®, Garant®, Harper®, UnionTools®, Westmix™, Cyclone®, Southern Patio®, Northcote Pottery™, Nylex®, Hills®, Kelkay®, Tuscan Path®, La Hacienda®, Kelso™, Apta®, and Dynamic Design®, as well as contractor-oriented brands including Razor-Back® Professional Tools and Jackson® Professional Tools. Storage and home organization brands within CPP include ClosetMaid®, MasterSuite®, Suite Symphony®, Cubeicals®, ExpressShelf®, SpaceCreations®, Maximum Load®, SuperSlide® and ShelfTrack®. CPP’s Hunter Fan Company has over 135 years of experience in the ceiling fan industry with well-recognized brands including Hunter®, Casablanca®, Hunter Industrial®, and Jan Fan®. The HBP and CPP businesses have approximately 1,671 registered trademarks and approximately 174 pending trademark applications around the world. Griffon’s rights in these trademarks endure for as long as they are used and registered.

Patents are also important to the HBP and CPP businesses. HBP holds approximately 45 issued patents and 23 pending patent applications in the U.S., as well as approximately 19 and 46 corresponding foreign patents and patent applications, primarily related to garage door system components and operation. CPP protects its designs and product innovation through the use of patents, and currently has approximately 723 issued patents and approximately 211 pending patent applications in the U.S., as well as approximately 310 and 107 corresponding foreign patents and patent applications, respectively. Design patents are generally valid for fourteen years, and utility patents are generally valid for twenty years, from the date of filing. Griffon's patents are in various stages of their terms of validity.

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Environmental, Social and Governance
Griffon and its operating companies have always taken into account environmental, social and governance (ESG) considerations in the management of our businesses. Griffon is a subscriber to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) and published its inaugural annual ESG report, in relation to fiscal 2021, benchmarked to both UNGC Sustainable Development Goals and to the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board criteria. The Griffon ESG policy and fiscal 2021 ESG Report can be found on the Griffon website at www.griffon.com.

The fiscal 2021 ESG Report discusses community involvement, charitable giving, employee safety, employee education and welfare, energy consumption, water consumption, waste generated, recycled raw materials, and packaging initiatives. We are preparing to set ESG goals in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2024 based on the metrics gathered in fiscal 2021, which process continued through 2022, and will continue through fiscal 2023.

Griffon has assessed the environmental risk from its operations and has focused its efforts to date on areas with the potential to have the greatest environmental impact. Where available, we use recycled materials to construct our products, and we continuously improve our packaging to reduce both volume and environmental impact. For example, bags used for AMES’ Kelkay aggregate products in the UK are made from plant-based materials, and not from petroleum. Seventy percent of the steel used in HBP's garage doors is recycled steel. AMES is a member of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association, which provides sustainable hardwoods for AMES tools, and is committed to purchasing hardwoods through the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.

Griffon continues its efforts to reduce carbon emissions by reducing electricity and natural gas usage at its operating facilities. Our Clopay business helps its customers reduce their own carbon footprints by providing garage doors that meet LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) building construction standards. While Griffon’s facilities are not large consumers of water, we routinely examine options to reduce water usage or reuse water at our facilities. AMES used recycled AMES and ClosetMaid tools and scrap materials in the construction of the new AMES headquarters facility in the Orlando, Florida area. Over the years, Griffon operating companies have reduced the use of solvents and other chemicals and now rarely generate hazardous waste of any kind.

Our operating companies are involved in the local communities in which they operate. We are involved in more than 100 charitable and community organizations, including well known national concerns such as Habitat for Humanity, Boys and Girls Clubs, the Home Depot Foundation (Diamond Sponsor) and the American Cancer Society, as well as local groups such as garden clubs. For example, employees at our Clopay subsidiary built a new home for Habitat for Humanity, and AMES contributed tools and products to that effort. Our communities know that they can count on us in a crisis.

Over the last five years, we have invested millions of dollars in capital improvements relating to energy consumption and to employee safety and health. These improvements include lighting energy efficiency projects saving in excess of 1.5 million kilowatt-hours, major upgrades to our loading and unloading operations (which had been the source of a significant portion of our worker injuries), ergonomic improvements, machine guarding and elimination of certain high-risk repetitive jobs through use of robotics. Griffon has also invested significant time and capital reducing ergonomic injuries through better work positioning and lifting improvements. Griffon has also invested over one million dollars in improvements to employee welfare facilities, such as break areas and cafeterias. We view our employees as more than just workers. Through our Employee Stock Ownership Plan, our U.S. employees own approximately nine percent of Griffon stock. Our businesses engage in a variety of outreach programs in the various communities in which we operate to recruit new employees at all levels. These programs involve high schools and vocational schools, as well as colleges and universities, and often include internships as a means for potential new employees to experience what it is like to be part of our team. We also have a variety of onboarding programs, onsite job training programs, leadership development programs, and tuition reimbursement and education assistance policies to further the development and advancement of our employees.

In all of our geographies, we use on-site inspections and specific contractual terms to manage our supply chains to ensure compliance with environmental and social laws and regulations, as well as our policies in these areas, including with respect to human rights, child labor, slave labor and unsafe working conditions. All significant CPP suppliers worldwide must periodically submit to a Factory Compliance and Capacity Assessment, which evaluates not only quality control and vendor capabilities, but assesses to what extent each supplier emphasizes environmental, labor and social considerations in the operation of its business. These activities have continued despite the travel difficulties caused by COVID. In China, where CPP both operates a manufacturing facility and sources materials and products from third parties, CPP has dedicated compliance personnel who report directly into CPP’ General Counsels.

Honesty, transparency, and ethical practices have been ordinary course at Griffon for decades, and we continue to review and upgrade our programs in these areas. Our Code of Business Ethics and Conduct ("Code"), to which every employee certifies annually, requires that each and every employee conduct business to the highest ethical standards. Any acts of bribery are strictly prohibited, as is human trafficking and activities supporting human trafficking, such as the use of conflicts minerals. The Code prohibits all business courtesies except for those with an insignificant value, and even then, only under limited circumstances. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines are published on our website. While the guidelines require that a majority of directors be independent, currently all of our directors are independent except our CEO (constituting over 92% of our directors). Griffon has appointed a lead independent director and has four principal board committees - Audit, Compensation,
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Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Finance - each of which has its responsibilities set forth in a charter available on the Griffon website.

We expect each of our employees around the world to work hard to deliver outstanding products to our customers and to deliver value to our shareholders. And, while doing so, we expect them to respect and adhere to our environmental, social and governance commitments and policies, and to make our company a place at which all employees are proud to come to work every day.

Executive Officers of the Registrant
 
The following is a current list of Griffon’s executive officers:
 
NameAgePositions Held and Prior Business Experience
Ronald J. Kramer64Chief Executive Officer since April 2008, Chairman of the Board since January 2018, Director since 1993, Vice Chairman of the Board from November 2003 to January 2018. From 2002 through March 2008, President and a Director of Wynn Resorts, Ltd. (Nasdaq:WYNN), a developer, owner and operator of destination casino resorts. From 1999 to 2001, Managing Director at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein, an investment banking firm, and its predecessor Wasserstein Perella & Co. Member of the board of directors of Franklin BSP Capital Corporation, Franklin BSP Lending Corporation and Franklin Private Credit Fund.
Robert F. Mehmel60Director since May 2018, President and Chief Operating Officer since December 2012. From August 2008 to October 2012, President and Chief Operating Officer of DRS Technologies (Formerly NYSE:DRS) ("DRS"), a supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence agencies and prime contractors worldwide. From May 2006 to August 2008, Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of DRS and from January 2001 to May 2006, Executive Vice President, Business Operations and Strategy, of DRS.
Brian G. Harris53Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since August 2015. From November 2012 to July 2015, Vice President and Controller of Griffon. From July 2009 to July 2015, Griffon's Chief Accounting Officer. From May 2005 to June 2009, Assistant Controller of Dover Corporation, a diversified global manufacturer (NYSE:DOV). Prior to this time, held various finance and accounting roles with Hearst Argyle Television (Formerly NYSE:HTV), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (NYSE:JW.A) and Arthur Andersen, LLP.
Seth L. Kaplan53Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since May 2010.  From July 2008 to May 2010, Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary at Hexcel Corporation (NYSE:HXL), a manufacturer of advanced composite materials for space and defense, commercial aerospace and wind energy applications.  From 2000 to July 2008, Senior Corporate Counsel and Assistant Secretary at Hexcel.  From 1994 to 2000, associate at the law firm Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (now Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP).
Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
Griffon’s business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows can be impacted by a number of factors which could cause Griffon’s actual results to vary materially from recent or anticipated future results. The risk factors discussed in this section should be carefully considered with all of the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These risk factors should not be considered the only risk factors facing Griffon. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial may also materially impact Griffon’s business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows in the future.
 
In general, Griffon is subject to the same general risks and uncertainties that impact other diverse manufacturing companies including, but not limited to, general economic, industry and/or market conditions and growth rates; impact of natural disasters and pandemics, and their effect on global markets; possible future terrorist threats and their effect on the worldwide economy; and changes in laws or accounting rules. Griffon has identified the following specific risks and uncertainties that it believes have the potential to materially affect its business and financial condition.





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Risks Related to Our Business
Current worldwide economic uncertainty and market volatility could adversely affect Griffon’s businesses.
 
The current worldwide economic uncertainty and market volatility could continue to have an adverse effect on Griffon during 2023, within both the CPP and HBP segments, which are linked to the U.S. housing and the commercial property markets, and the U.S. economy in general. Purchases of many CPP and HBP products are discretionary for consumers who are generally more willing to purchase products during periods in which favorable macroeconomic conditions prevail. These conditions could make it more difficult to obtain additional credit on favorable terms for investments in current businesses or for acquisitions, or could render financing unavailable; in addition, while we do not have any near term debt maturities, if these conditions persist, we may have difficulty refinancing our debt when it comes due. Griffon is also exposed to certain fundamental economic risks including a decrease in the demand for the products and services it offers or a higher likelihood of default on its receivables.
 
Adverse trends and general economic conditions, especially those that relate to construction and renovation, will impact Griffon’s business.

The CPP and HBP businesses serve residential and commercial construction and renovation, and are influenced by market conditions that affect these industries. For the year ended September 30, 2022, approximately 47% and 53% of Griffon’s consolidated revenue was derived from the CPP and HBP segments, respectively, which were dependent on renovation of existing homes, new home construction, and commercial non-residential construction, repair and replacement. The strength of the U.S. economy, the age of existing home stock, job growth, interest rates, consumer confidence and the availability of consumer credit, as well as demographic factors such as migration into the U.S. and migration of the population within the U.S., have an effect on CPP and HBP.  To the extent market conditions for residential or commercial construction and renovation are weaker than expected, this will likely have an adverse impact on the performance and financial results of the CPP and HBP businesses.

Griffon is exposed to fluctuations in inflation, which could negatively affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Inflation rates, including residential mortgage rates, particularly in the United States, have increased recently to historic levels. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the annual inflation rate for the United States was approximately 8.2% for the twelve months ended September 30, 2022. Continued high inflation or increases in inflation may result in decreased demand for Griffon’s products and services and increased operating costs and expenses, including labor costs and costs of raw materials and supplies. In particular, higher home mortgage rates typically result in a slowdown in both the purchase and construction of new homes and renovation of existing homes, which will reduce demand for certain of Griffon’s products. In addition, the United States Federal Reserve has raised, and may again raise, interest rates in response to concerns about inflation. Increases in interest rates, especially if coupled with reduced government spending and volatility in financial markets, may have the effect of further increasing economic uncertainty and heightening these risks, which may result in economic recession. In the event inflation continues to increase, we may seek to increase the sales prices of our products and services in order to maintain satisfactory margins. Any attempts to offset Griffon’s cost increases with price increases may result in reduced sales, increase customer dissatisfaction or harm to reputation. Additionally, Griffon’s operating companies may be unable to raise the prices of their products and services at or above the rate at which their costs increase, which may reduce revenues and operating margins and have a material adverse effect on financial results and future growth.

Griffon operates in highly competitive industries and may be unable to compete effectively.
 
Griffon’s operating companies face intense competition in the markets they serve. Griffon competes primarily on the basis of technical expertise, product differentiation, quality of products and services, and price. There are a number of competitors to Griffon, some of which are larger and have greater resources than Griffon’s operating companies. Griffon's operating companies may face additional competition from companies that operate in countries with significantly lower operating costs.

Many CPP and HBP customers are large mass merchandisers, such as home centers, warehouse clubs, discount stores, commercial distributors and e-commerce companies. The growing share of the market represented by these large mass merchandisers, together with changes in consumer shopping patterns, have contributed to the increase of multi-category retailers and e-commerce companies that have strong negotiating power with suppliers. Many of these retailers import products directly from foreign suppliers to source and sell products under their own private label brands to compete with CPP and HBP products and brands, which puts increasing price pressure on the products of these businesses. In addition, the intense
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competition in the retail and e-commerce sectors, combined with the overall increasingly competitive economic environment, may result in a number of customers experiencing financial difficulty, or failing in the future. The loss of, or a failure by, one of CPP’s or HBP’s significant customers could adversely impact our sales and operating cash flows.

To address all of these challenges, CPP and HBP must be able to respond to these competitive pressures, and the failure to respond effectively could result in a loss of sales, reduced profitability and a limited ability to recover cost increases through price increases. In addition, there can be no assurance that Griffon will not encounter increased competition in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on Griffon’s financial results.

The loss of large customers can harm financial results.
 
A small number of customers account for, and are expected to continue to account for, a substantial portion of Griffon's consolidated revenue. Home Depot, Lowe’s and Bunnings are significant customers of CPP, and Home Depot and Menards are significant customers of HBP. Home Depot accounted for approximately 13% of consolidated revenue, 19% of CPP's revenue and 7% of HBP's revenue for the year ended September 30, 2022. Future operating results will continue to substantially depend on the success of Griffon’s largest customers, as well as Griffon’s relationships with them. Orders from these customers are subject to fluctuation and may be reduced materially due to changes in customer needs or other factors. Any reduction or delay in sales of products to one or more of these customers could significantly reduce Griffon’s revenue. Griffon’s operating results will also depend on successfully developing relationships with additional key customers. Griffon cannot assure that its largest customers will be retained or that additional key customers will be recruited. Also, both CPP and HBP extend credit to its customers, which exposes it to credit risk. The largest customer accounted for approximately 26%, 7% and 17% of the net accounts receivable of CPP, HBP and Griffon as of September 30, 2022, respectively. If this customer were to become insolvent or otherwise unable to pay its debts, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of CPP, HBP and Griffon could be adversely affected.

Reliance on third party suppliers and manufacturers may impair the ability of CPP and HBP to meet their customer demands.
 
CPP and HBP rely on a limited number of domestic and foreign companies to supply components and manufacture certain of their products. The percentage of CPP and HBP worldwide sourced finished goods as a percent of revenue approximated 34% and 5%, respectively, in 2022. The percentage of CPP and HBP's worldwide sourced components as a percent of cost of goods sold approximated 13% and 14%, respectively, in 2022. Reliance on third party suppliers and manufacturers may reduce control over the timing of deliveries and quality of both CPP and HBP products. Reduced product quality or failure to deliver products timely may jeopardize relationships with certain of CPP's and HBP's key customers. In addition, reliance on third party suppliers or manufacturers may result in the failure to meet CPP and HBP customer demands. Continued turbulence in the worldwide economy may affect the liquidity and financial condition of CPP and HBP suppliers. Should any of these parties fail to manufacture sufficient supply, go out of business or discontinue a particular component, alternative suppliers may not be found in a timely manner, if at all. Such events may impact the ability of CPP and HBP to fill orders, which could have a material adverse effect on customer relationships.

A product provided to HBP by one of its suppliers was found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of a competitor of this supplier. The supplier developed an alternative design for such product that has allowed it to meet HBP’s needs and which the supplier believes is non-infringing; however, the competitor has alleged, in a pending administrative proceeding, that the redesigned product also infringes on its intellectual property rights. The supplier is also appealing the initial finding of infringement and believes it has a reasonable likelihood of success. However, should the alternative design be deemed to be an infringing product and should the supplier lose its appeal of the initial finding of infringement, and as a result the supply of this product is interrupted, it could adversely impact HBP’s business and results of operations.
 
If Griffon is unable to obtain raw materials for products at favorable prices it could adversely impact operating performance.
 
CPP and HBP suppliers primarily provide resin, wood, steel and wire rod. Both of these businesses could experience shortages of raw materials or components for products or be forced to seek alternative sources of supply. If temporary shortages due to disruptions in supply caused by weather, transportation, production delays or other factors require raw materials to be secured from sources other than current suppliers, the terms may not be as favorable as current terms or certain materials may not be available at all. In recent years, both CPP and HBP have experienced price increases for most of their raw materials.
 
While most key raw materials used in Griffon’s businesses are generally available from numerous sources, raw materials are subject to price fluctuations. Because raw materials in the aggregate constitute a significant component of the cost of goods sold, price fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on Griffon’s results of operations. Griffon’s ability to pass raw material price increases to customers is limited due to supply arrangements and competitive pricing pressure, and there is
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generally a time lag between increased raw material costs and implementation of corresponding price increases for Griffon’s products. In particular, sharp increases in raw material prices are more difficult to pass through to customers and may negatively affect short-term financial performance.

CPP is subject to risks from sourcing from international locations, especially China

CPP's business is global, with products and raw materials sourced from, manufactured in and sold in multiple countries around the world. There are risks associated with conducting a business that may be impacted by political and other developments associated with international trade. In this regard, certain products sold by CPP in the United States and elsewhere are currently sourced from suppliers in China, with some of these products sourced exclusively from suppliers in China. Certain raw materials used by CPP may be sourced from China and therefore may have their prices and availability impacted by tariffs imposed on trade between the United States and China.

The sourcing of CPP finished goods, components and raw materials from China are generally subject to supply agreements with Chinese companies. China does not have a well-developed, consolidated body of laws governing agreements with international customers. Enforcement of existing laws or contracts based on existing law may be uncertain and sporadic, and it may be difficult to obtain swift and equitable enforcement or to obtain enforcement of a judgment by a court of another jurisdiction. The relative limited Chinese judicial precedent on matters of international trade in many cases creates additional uncertainty as to the outcome of any litigation. In addition, interpretation of statutes and regulations in China may be subject to government policies or political changes.

Because of the volume of sourcing by CPP from China, the ongoing trade dispute between the U.S. and China, including the imposition of tariffs on various Chinese imports into the U.S. at various times since March 2018, represents a continuing risk to CPP revenue and operating performance. The tariffs currently apply to approximately $375 billion in annual U.S. imports from China. Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 requires that the duties must terminate after four years unless one or more domestic beneficiaries of the tariffs requests their continuation. In September 2022, the United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced that it had received such requests and would therefore continue the tariffs pending a comprehensive review of their necessity. The process for completing this review, which contemplates a period of public comment, means the tariffs will remain in effect for several months at least, with an unpredictable outcome.

In addition to tariffs, an increased global focus on forced labor in supply chains has the potential to impact our business operations. In June 2022, the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act (UFLPA) went into effect and establishes a rebuttable presumption that goods made in whole or in part in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China are produced with forced labor, and directs US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to prevent entry of products made with forced labor into the U.S. market. Importers whose shipments are detained by CBP under the UFLPA can rebut the presumption with “clear and convincing evidence” that the products were not produced with forced labor. This requires that the importer submit detailed information regarding every supplier and sub-supplier, as well as all components and raw materials, relating to the goods being detained, and detention costs accrue during the pendency of CBP’s evaluation. From June 21, 2022 through September 30, 2022, more than 1,450 shipments from China to U.S importers, valued at approximately $429 million, were targeted by CBP for further inspection. Neither CPP nor its suppliers currently manufacture or source products, components or raw materials from the Uyghur region of China; however, CBP takes a broad approach when targeting shipments they believe may have originated from the Uyghur region based on product definitions, tariff codes and supplier names that lead them to suspect the goods come from the Uyghur region. As a result, CPP shipments may be targeted for detention in which case they become subject to the rebuttable presumption that they were sourced from the Uyghur region even though they are demonstrably outside the scope of the UFLPA. In view of the increased enforcement of forced labor initiatives, we are updating our compliance measures and working with our China supply base to validate their supply chains, from raw materials through components to finished goods, to ensure our goods are not made using forced labor. We cannot be certain that our products will not be targeted or that our shipments will not be detained, which may impact our operating performance. Forced labor enforcement initiatives are targeting imports from other countries besides China, and we are monitoring the products and countries subject to increased scrutiny for potential impacts to our operations.

The continuing political and economic conflicts between U.S. and China have resulted in and may continue to cause retaliatory policies from both countries, and it is unknown whether current US-China relations over Taiwan, including the commencement of negotiations regarding a new trade initiative between the United States and Taiwan, will impact the ongoing trade dispute with China. We cannot predict what new and additional retaliatory policies and regulations may be implemented by the Chinese government in response to the U.S./Taiwan engagement, and any such policies and regulations or other responses may adversely affect our business operations in China.

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CPP and HBP operations are also subject to the effects of international trade agreements and regulations such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, and the activities and regulations of the World Trade Organization. Although these trade agreements generally have positive effects on trade liberalization, sourcing flexibility and cost of goods by reducing or eliminating the duties and/or quotas assessed on products manufactured in a particular country, trade agreements can also adversely affect CPP and HBP businesses. For example, trade agreements can result in setting quotas on products that may be imported from a particular country into key markets including the U.S., Canada, Australia and the U.K., or may make it easier for other companies to compete by eliminating restrictions on products from countries where CPP and HBP competitors source products.

The ability of CPP and HBP to import products in a timely and cost-effective manner may continue to be affected by conditions at ports or issues that otherwise affect transportation and warehousing providers, such as port and shipping capacity, labor disputes, severe weather or increased homeland security requirements in the U.S. and other countries, as well as the potential for increased costs due to currency exchange fluctuations. These issues could delay importation of products or require CPP and HBP to locate alternative ports or warehousing providers to avoid disruption to customers. These alternatives may not be available on short notice or could result in higher transit costs, which could have an adverse impact on CPP and HBP business and financial condition.

 The COVID-19 outbreak, or any other future pandemic could adversely impact our results of operations.

The future impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, or any other future pandemic, and the spread of the pathogen on a global basis could adversely affect our businesses in a number of respects, although the extent, nature and timing of such impact cannot be predicted as of the date of this filing. The COVID-19 outbreak led countries around the world, as well as most states in the U.S., to implement restrictions from time-to-time relating to the operation of almost all types of businesses. Most of these restrictions have been eliminated or reduced due to a reduction in the health risk of COVID-19. As of the date of this filing, all of our manufacturing and distribution facilities are operating. However, government actions taken based on the changing nature of the outbreak in the U.S. or in other countries in which we do business could result in temporary closures of Griffon facilities.

During the height of COVID-19 our supply chain experienced certain disruptions which, together with other factors such as a shortage of labor, resulted in longer delivery lead times and restricted manufacturing capacity for certain of our products. While our supply chain appears to generally be stable at this time, should a resurgence of COVID-19 occur, our supply chain could again be negatively impacted; for example, certain of our suppliers could be required by government authorities to temporarily cease operations or might be limited in their production capacity.

If as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, including a potential resurgence of the virus in the fall and winter months, governments take additional protective actions, it may have a material adverse impact on Griffon’s businesses and operating results for the reasons described above. In such event, the extent and duration of any impact on our businesses would be difficult to predict. To the extent the COVID-19 outbreak adversely affects our businesses, operations, financial condition and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks factors such as those relating to our high level of indebtedness, our need to generate sufficient cash flows to service our indebtedness, and our ability to comply with the covenants contained in the agreements that govern our indebtedness, as described in more detail below.

Griffon’s businesses are subject to seasonal variations and the impact of uncertain weather patterns.
 
Griffon's revenue and earnings are generally lowest in our first and fourth quarters ending December 31, and September 30, respectively, and highest in the second and third quarters ending March 31, and June 30, respectively, primarily due to the seasonality within the AMES and HBP businesses. In 2022, with the addition of Hunter Fan, 58% (55%, excluding Hunter Fan sales) of AMES' sales occurred during the second and third quarters compared to 53% in both 2021 and 2020. HBP’s business is driven by renovation and construction during warm weather, which is generally at reduced levels during the winter months, generally in our second quarter.

Demand for lawn and garden products is influenced by weather, particularly weekend weather during the peak gardening season. AMES' sales volumes could be adversely affected by certain weather patterns such as unseasonably cool or warm temperatures, hurricanes, water shortages or floods. In addition, lack of snow or lower than average snowfall during the winter season may result in reduced sales of certain AMES' products such as snow shovels and other snow tools. As a result, AMES' results of operations, financial results and cash flows could be adversely impacted.




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Unionized employees could strike or participate in a work stoppage.
 
At September 30, 2022, Griffon employed approximately 6,200 people on a full-time basis, approximately 4% of whom are covered by collective bargaining or similar labor agreements. If unionized employees engage in a strike or other work stoppage, or if Griffon is unable to negotiate acceptable extensions of agreements with labor unions, a significant disruption of operations and increased operating costs could occur. In addition, any renegotiation or renewal of labor agreements could result in higher wages or benefits paid to unionized employees, which could increase operating costs and as a result have a material adverse effect on profitability.

Griffon’s operations and reputation may be adversely impacted if our information technology (IT) systems, or the IT systems of third parties with whom we do business, fail to perform adequately or if we or such third parties are the subject of a data breach or cyber-attack.

We rely on IT systems, networks and services to conduct our business, including communicating with employees and our key commercial customers, ordering and managing materials and products from suppliers, shipping products to customers and analyzing and reporting results of operations. While we have taken steps to ensure the security of our information technology systems, our systems may nevertheless be vulnerable to computer viruses, security breaches and other disruptions from unauthorized users. Cyber criminals are becoming more sophisticated and knowledgeable every day, and as their tactics evolve, it is a constant challenge to ensure that our IT security practices are sufficient to protect our IT systems and data. If our IT systems are damaged or cease to function properly for an extended period of time, whether as a result of a significant cyber incident or otherwise, our ability to communicate internally as well as with our customers and suppliers could be significantly impaired, which may adversely impact our business, operations and reputation.

In the normal course of our business, we collect, store, and transmit proprietary and confidential information regarding our brands, customers, employees, suppliers and others. We also engage third parties that store, process and transmit these types of information, as well as personal information, on our behalf. An operational failure or breach of security from increasingly sophisticated cyber threats could lead to loss, misuse or unauthorized disclosure of this information about our employees or customers, which may result in regulatory or other legal proceedings, and could have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation. We also may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber-attacks. Any such attacks or precautionary measures taken to prevent anticipated attacks may result in increasing costs, including costs for additional technologies, training, and third-party consultants. The losses incurred from a breach of data security and operational failures as well as the precautionary measures required to address this evolving risk may adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We depend on our information systems to process orders, manage inventory and accounts receivable collections, purchase, sell, and ship products efficiently and on a timely basis, maintain cost-effective operations, and provide superior service to our customers. If these systems are damaged, infiltrated, shutdown, or cease to function properly (whether by planned upgrades, force majeure, telecommunications failures, hardware or software break-ins or viruses, other cyber security incidents, or otherwise), we may suffer disruption in our ability to manage and operate our business.

There can be no assurance that the precautions which we have taken against certain events that could disrupt the operations of our information systems will prevent the occurrence of such a disruption. Any such disruption could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
 
Griffon may be unable to implement its acquisition growth strategy, which may result in added expenses without a commensurate increase in revenue and income, and divert management’s attention.

Making strategic acquisitions is a significant part of Griffon’s growth plans. The ability to successfully complete acquisitions depends on identifying and acquiring, on acceptable terms, companies that either complement or enhance currently held businesses or expand Griffon into new profitable businesses, and, for certain acquisitions, obtaining financing on acceptable terms. Additionally, Griffon must properly integrate acquired businesses in order to maximize profitability. The competition for acquisition candidates is intense and Griffon cannot assure that it will successfully identify acquisition candidates and complete acquisitions at reasonable purchase prices, in a timely manner, or at all. Further, there is a risk that acquisitions will not be properly integrated into Griffon’s existing structure. Griffon closed the acquisitions of La Hacienda, Tuscan Path, ClosetMaid and Harper Brush in the months of July through November 2017, Kelkay in February 2018, CornellCookson in June 2018, Apta in November 2019, Quatro in December 2020 and Hunter Fan in January 2022. This integration risk may be exacerbated when numerous acquisitions are consummated in a short time period.

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In implementing an acquisition growth strategy, the following may be encountered:

Costs associated with incomplete or poorly implemented acquisitions;
Expenses, delays and difficulties of integrating acquired companies into Griffon’s existing organization;
Dilution of the interest of existing stockholders;
Diversion of management’s attention; or
Difficulty in obtaining financing on acceptable terms, or at all.

An unsuccessful implementation of Griffon’s acquisition growth strategy, including the failure to properly integrate acquisitions, could have an adverse impact on Griffon’s results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We may also incur debt or assume contingent liabilities in connection with acquisitions, which could impose restrictions on our business operations and harm our operating results.

The pendency of our current process to explore strategic alternatives and the possible failure to consummate a strategic transaction could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock and our future business and results of operations.

In May 2022, Griffon’s Board of Directors publicly announced that it would explore a comprehensive range of strategic alternatives to maximize shareholder value including a sale, merger, divestiture, recapitalization or other strategic transaction. This process is active and ongoing. The uncertainties associated with this process, and the expenses and efforts involved, may negatively affect our business and our relationships with employees, customers, suppliers, distributors and vendors. If we do not enter into or consummate a strategic transaction, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. Furthermore, if we do not consummate a transaction, the price of our common stock may decline from the current market price, as the current market price might incorporate a market assumption that a transaction will be consummated. A failed transaction may also result in reduced employee morale and productivity, negative publicity and a negative impression of us in the investment community. Further, any disruptions to our business resulting from any announcement and pendency of a transaction, including any adverse changes in our relationships with our customers, suppliers, distributors, vendors and employees or recruiting and retention efforts, could continue or accelerate in the event of a failed acquisition. Matters relating to any failed transaction may require significant costs and expenses and substantial management time and resources, which could otherwise have been devoted to operating and growing our businesses.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

While Griffon’s senior notes, which have limited covenants, are not due until 2028; its $800 million Term Loan B (current balance of $496 million), which also has limited covenants, is not due until 2029; and its $400 million revolving line of credit, which has greater covenant requirements, does not mature until 2025, there are potential impacts from Griffon’s use of debt to finance certain of its activities, especially acquisitions and expansions, as set forth below.

Compliance with restrictions and covenants in Griffon’s debt agreements may limit its ability to take corporate actions.

The credit agreement entered into by, and, to a lesser extent, the terms of the senior notes issued by, Griffon each contain covenants that restrict the ability of Griffon and its subsidiaries to, among other things, incur additional debt, pay dividends, incur liens and make investments, acquisitions, dispositions, restricted payments and capital expenditures. Under the credit agreement, Griffon is also required to comply with specific financial ratios and tests. Griffon may not be able to comply in the future with these covenants or restrictions as a result of events beyond its control, such as prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions or a change in control of Griffon. If Griffon defaults in maintaining compliance with the covenants and restrictions in its credit agreement or the senior notes, its lenders could declare all of the principal and interest amounts outstanding due and payable and, in the case of the credit agreement, terminate the commitments to extend credit to Griffon in the future. If Griffon or its subsidiaries are unable to secure credit in the future, its business could be harmed.

Griffon may be unable to raise additional financing if needed.

Griffon may need to raise additional financing in the future in order to implement its business plan, refinance debt, or acquire new or complimentary businesses or assets. Any required additional financing may be unavailable, or only available at unfavorable terms, due to uncertainties in the credit markets. If Griffon raises additional funds by issuing equity securities, current holders of its common stock may experience significant ownership interest dilution and the holders of the new securities may have rights senior to the rights associated with current outstanding common stock.

20


Griffon’s indebtedness and interest expense could limit cash flow and adversely affect operations and Griffon’s ability to make full payment on outstanding debt.

Griffon’s indebtedness poses potential risks such as:

A substantial portion of cash flows from operations could be used to pay principal and interest on debt, thereby reducing the funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, product development and other general corporate purposes;
Insufficient cash flows from operations may force Griffon to sell assets, or seek additional capital, which Griffon may not be able to secure on favorable terms, if at all; and
Its level of indebtedness may make Griffon more vulnerable to economic or industry downturns.


Risk Related to Our Common Stock

Griffon has the ability to issue additional equity securities, which would lead to dilution of issued and outstanding common stock.

The issuance of additional equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities would result in dilution to existing stockholders’ equity interests. Griffon is authorized to issue, without stockholder vote or approval, 3,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, and has the ability to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of any such series. Any such series of preferred stock could contain dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, redemption prices, liquidation preferences or other rights superior to the rights of holders of Griffon’s common stock. While there is no present intention of issuing any such preferred stock, Griffon reserves the right to do so at any time. In addition, Griffon is authorized to issue, without stockholder approval, up to 85,000,000 shares of common stock, of which 57,064,331 shares, net of treasury shares, were outstanding as of September 30, 2022. Additionally, Griffon is authorized to issue, without stockholder approval, securities convertible into either shares of common stock or preferred stock.

General Risk Factors

Each of Griffon's businesses faces risks related to the disruption of its primary manufacturing facilities.

The manufacturing facilities for each of Griffon's businesses are concentrated in just a few locations, and in the case of CPP, some of these locations are abroad in low-cost locations. Any of Griffon's manufacturing facilities are subject to disruption for a variety of reasons, such as natural or man-made disasters, pandemics, terrorist activities, disruptions of information technology resources, and utility interruptions. Such disruptions may cause delays in shipping products, which could result in the loss of business or customer trust, adversely affecting Griffon’s businesses and operating results.

Manufacturing capacity constraints or increased manufacturing costs may have a material adverse effect on Griffon's business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Griffon’s current manufacturing resources may be inadequate to meet significantly increased demand for some of its products. Griffon’s ability to increase its manufacturing capacity depends on many factors, including the availability of capital, steadily increasing consumer demand, equipment delivery, construction lead-times, installation, qualification, and permitting and other regulatory requirements. Increasing capacity through the use of third-party manufacturers may depend on Griffon’s ability to develop and maintain such relationships and the ability of such third parties to devote additional capacity to fill its orders.

A lack of sufficient manufacturing capacity to meet demand could cause customer service levels to decrease, which may negatively affect customer demand for Griffon's products and customer relations generally, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on Griffon's business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, operating facilities at or near capacity may also increase production and distribution costs and negatively impact relations with employees or contractors, which could result in disruptions to operations.

In addition, manufacturing costs may increase significantly and Griffon may not be able to pass along all or any of such increase to its customers; and when such increases are passed off to customers, there will be a time lag, which may be significant.

21


If CPP and HBP do not continue to develop and maintain leading brands or realize the anticipated benefits of advertising and promotion spend, its operating results may suffer.

The ability of CPP and HBP to compete successfully depends in part on the company’s ability to develop and maintain leading brands so that retail and other customers will need its products to meet consumer demand. Leading brands allow both CPP and HBP to realize economies of scale in its operations. The development and maintenance of such brands require significant investment in brand-building and marketing initiatives. While CPP and HBP plan to continue to increase its expenditures for advertising and promotion and other brand-building and marketing initiatives over the long term, the initiatives may not deliver the anticipated results and the results of such initiatives may not cover the costs of the increased investment.
Griffon may be required to record impairment charges for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets.

Griffon is required to assess goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment or on an interim basis if changes in circumstances or the occurrence of events suggest impairment exists. If impairment testing indicates that the carrying amount of reporting units or indefinite-lived intangible assets exceeds the respective fair value, an impairment charge would be recognized. If goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets were to become impaired, the results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, we recorded a non-cash, pre-tax goodwill impairment of $342,027, and a non-cash pre-tax indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment of $175,000. These non-cash impairments resulted in an aggregate decrease of $8.43 in our earnings per share for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022. Should we have to record additional impairment charges in the future, it could similarly have a significant negative impact on our earnings per share for the year in which any such impairment charge is recorded.

If Griffon's subcontractors or suppliers fail to perform their obligations, Griffon's performance and ability to win future business could be harmed.

Griffon relies on other companies to provide materials, major components and products to fulfill contractual obligations. Such arrangements may involve subcontracts, teaming arrangements, or supply agreements with other companies. There is a risk that Griffon may have disputes regarding the quality and timeliness of work performed. In addition, changes in the economic environment, including constraints on available financing, may adversely affect the financial stability of Griffon's supply chain and their ability to meet their performance requirements or to provide needed supplies on a timely basis. A disruption or failure of any supplier could have an adverse effect on Griffon's business resulting in an impact to profitability, possible termination of a contract, imposition of fines or penalties, and harm to Griffon's reputation impacting its ability to secure future business.

Griffon’s companies must continually improve existing products, design and sell new products and invest in research and development in order to compete effectively.
 
The markets for Griffon’s products are characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and continuous improvements in products. Due to constant changes in Griffon's markets, future success depends on Griffon's ability to develop new technologies, products, processes and product applications. Griffon's long-term success in the competitive retail environment and the industrial and commercial markets depends on its ability to develop and commercialize a continuing stream of innovative new products that are appealing to ultimate end users and create demand. New product development and commercialization efforts, including efforts to enter markets or product categories in which Griffon has limited or no prior experience, have inherent risks. These risks include the costs involved, such as development and commercialization, product development or launch delays, and the failure of new products and line extensions to achieve anticipated levels of market acceptance or growth in sales or operating income.

Griffon also faces the risk that its competitors will introduce innovative new products that compete with Griffon’s products. In addition, sales generated by new products could cause a decline in sales of Griffon’s other existing products. If new product development and commercialization efforts are not successful, Griffon’s financial results could be adversely affected.

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Product and technological developments are accomplished both through internally-funded R&D projects, as well as through strategic partnerships with customers. Because it is not generally possible to predict the amount of time required and costs involved in achieving certain R&D objectives, actual development costs may exceed budgeted amounts and estimated product development schedules may be extended. Griffon’s financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected if:
 
Product improvements are not completed on a timely basis;
New products are not introduced on a timely basis or do not achieve sufficient market penetration;
There are budget overruns or delays in R&D efforts; or
New products experience reliability or quality problems, or otherwise do not meet customer preferences or requirements.
 
The loss of certain key officers or employees could adversely affect Griffon’s business.
 
The success of Griffon is materially dependent upon the continued services of certain key officers and employees. The loss of such key personnel could have a material adverse effect on Griffon’s operating results or financial condition.
 
Griffon is exposed to a variety of risks relating to non-U.S. sales and operations, including non-U.S. economic and political conditions and fluctuations in exchange rates.

Griffon and its companies conduct operations in Canada, Australasia, the U.K., and China, and sell their products in many countries around the world. Sales of products through non-U.S. subsidiaries accounted for approximately 17% of consolidated revenue for the year ended September 30, 2022. These sales could be adversely affected by changes in political and economic conditions, trade protection measures, such as tariffs, the ability of the Company to enter into industrial cooperation agreements (offset agreements), differing intellectual property rights and laws and changes in regulatory requirements that restrict the sales of products or increase costs in such locations. Enforcement of existing laws in such jurisdictions can be uncertain, and the lack of a sophisticated body of laws can create various uncertainties, including with respect to customer and supplier contracts. Currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in the non-U.S. regions in which Griffon does business may also have an impact on future reported financial results.

Griffon's international sales and operations are subject to applicable laws relating to trade, export controls and foreign corrupt practices, the violation of which could adversely affect operations. Griffon is subject to various anti-corruption laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. In addition, Griffon is subject to certain export controls, laws and regulations, as well as to economic sanctions, laws and embargoes imposed by various governments or organizations, including the U.S. and the European Union or member countries. Violations of anti-corruption, export controls or sanctions laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions and penalties, including loss of export privileges and loss of authorizations needed to conduct Griffon's international business. Such violations could also result in Griffon being subject to other liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on Griffon's business, results of operations and financial condition.

Griffon may not be able to protect its proprietary rights.
 
Griffon relies on a combination of patent, copyright and trademark laws, common law, trade secrets, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements and other contractual provisions to protect proprietary rights. Such measures do not provide absolute protection and Griffon cannot give assurance that measures for protecting these proprietary rights are and will be adequate, or that competitors will not independently develop similar technologies.
 
Griffon or its suppliers may inadvertently infringe on, or may be accused of infringing on, proprietary rights of others.

Griffon is regularly improving its technology and employing existing technologies in new ways. Though Griffon takes reasonable precautions to ensure it does not infringe on the rights of others, it is possible that Griffon may inadvertently infringe on, or be accused of infringing on, proprietary rights held by others. If Griffon is found to have infringed on the propriety rights held by others, any related litigation or settlement relating to such infringement may have a material effect on Griffon’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

It is also possible that Griffon’s suppliers may inadvertently infringe on, or be accused of infringing on, proprietary rights held by others. For example, a product provided to HBP by one of its suppliers was found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of a competitor of this supplier. If other Griffon suppliers are found to have infringed (or are alleged to have infringed) on
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the propriety rights of others, such infringement may have a material adverse effect on Griffon’s business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the supplier may not be able to develop an alternative design that meets Griffon’s needs at a comparable cost or at all, and the supply of certain products or components to Griffon may be interrupted.
 
Griffon is exposed to product liability and warranty claims.
 
Griffon is subject to product liability and warranty claims in the ordinary course of business, including with respect to former businesses now included within discontinued operations. These claims relate to the conformity of its products with required specifications, and to alleged or actual defects in Griffon’s products (or in end-products in which Griffon’s products were a component part) that cause damage to property or persons. There can be no assurance that the frequency and severity of product liability claims brought against Griffon will not increase, which claims can be brought either by an injured customer of an end product manufacturer who used one of Griffon's products as a component or by a direct purchaser. There is also no assurance that the number and value of warranty claims will not increase as compared to historical claim rates, or that Griffon's warranty reserve at any particular time is sufficient. No assurance can be given that indemnification from customers or coverage under insurance policies will be adequate to cover future product liability claims against Griffon; for example, product liability insurance typically does not cover claims for punitive damages. Warranty claims are typically not covered by insurance at all. Product liability insurance can be expensive, difficult to maintain and may be unobtainable in the future on acceptable terms. The amount and scope of any insurance coverage may be inadequate if a product liability claim is successfully asserted. Furthermore, if any significant claims are made, the business and the related financial condition of Griffon may be adversely affected by negative publicity.
 
Griffon has been, and may in the future be, subject to claims and liabilities under environmental laws and regulations.

Griffon’s operations and assets are subject to environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the discharge of materials into the environment, the handling and disposal of wastes, including solid and hazardous wastes, and otherwise relating to health, safety and protection of the environment, in the various jurisdictions in which it operates. Griffon does not expect to make any expenditure with respect to ongoing compliance with or remediation under these environmental laws and regulations that would have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results or financial condition. However, the applicable requirements under environmental laws and regulations may change at any time.
 
Griffon can incur environmental costs related to sites that are no longer owned or operated, as well as third-party sites to which hazardous materials are sent. Material expenditures or liabilities may be incurred in connection with such claims. See the Commitment and Contingencies footnote in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on environmental contingencies. Based on facts presently known, the outcome of current environmental matters are not expected to have a material adverse effect on Griffon’s results of operations and financial condition. However, presently unknown environmental conditions, changes in environmental laws and regulations or other unanticipated events may give rise to claims that may involve material expenditures or liabilities.
 
Changes in income tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could adversely affect profitability.

Griffon is subject to Federal, state and local income taxes in the U.S. and in various taxing jurisdictions outside the U.S. Tax provisions and liabilities are subject to the allocation of income among various U.S. and international tax jurisdictions. Griffon’s effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in any valuation allowance for deferred tax assets or the amendment or enactment of tax laws. The amount of income taxes paid is subject to audits by U.S. Federal, state and local tax authorities, as well as tax authorities in the taxing jurisdictions outside the U.S. If such audits result in assessments different from recorded income tax liabilities, Griffon’s future financial results may include unfavorable adjustments to its income tax provision.

Actions taken by activist shareholders could be disruptive and costly and may conflict with or disrupt the strategic direction of our business.

Similar to the activist shareholder campaign initiated in 2021, activist shareholders may from time to time attempt to effect changes in our strategic direction and seek changes regarding Griffon’s corporate governance or structure. Our Board of Directors and management team strive to maintain constructive, ongoing communications with all shareholders who wish to speak with us, including activist shareholders, and welcomes their views and opinions with the goal of working together constructively to enhance value for all shareholders. However, activist campaigns that contest, or conflict with, our strategic direction could have an adverse effect on us because:

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a.responding to actions by activist shareholders can disrupt our operations, be costly and time consuming, and divert the attention of our Board and senior management from the pursuit of our business strategies, and
b.perceived uncertainties as to our future direction may cause (i) instability or lack of continuity, which may be exploited by our competitors, (ii) concern on the part of current or potential customers, (iii) loss of business opportunities, or (iv) difficulties in attracting and retain qualified personnel and business partners.

Activist campaigns may also cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions, or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the fundamental underlying value of our businesses.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2.    Properties
Griffon occupies approximately 10,460,000 square feet of general office, factory and warehouse space primarily throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Australia, U.K., Ireland and China. For a description of the encumbrances on certain of these properties, see the Notes Payable, Capitalized Leases and Long-Term Debt footnote in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The following table sets forth certain information related to Griffon’s major facilities:
LocationBusiness SegmentPrimary UseApprox.
Square
Footage
Owned/
Leased
Lease
End Year
New York, NYCorporateHeadquarters13,000 Leased2025
Huntington, NY(1)
CorporateManufacturing90,000 Owned
Troy, OHHome and Building ProductsManufacturing1,230,000 Owned
Russia, OHHome and Building ProductsManufacturing250,000 Owned 
Mountain Top, PAHome and Building ProductsManufacturing279,000 Owned
Goodyear, AZHome and Building ProductsManufacturing163,000 Owned
Carlisle, PAConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing, Distribution1,409,000 Leased2035
Reno, NVConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing, Distribution997,000 Leased2034
Camp Hill, PAConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing380,000 Owned
Harrisburg, PAConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing264,000 Owned 
St. Francois, QuebecConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing, Distribution353,000 Owned 
Champion, PAConsumer and Professional ProductsWood Mill225,000 Owned
Cork, IrelandConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing, Distribution74,000 Owned 
Pollington Site, UKConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing, Distribution115,000 Owned
Gloucestershire, UKConsumer and Professional ProductsDistribution139,000 Leased2023
Barmby Moor, UKConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing240,000 Leased2027
Kent, UKConsumer and Professional ProductsDistribution32,000 Leased2026
Australia (various)Consumer and Professional Products8 Distribution661,000 Leased2023 - 2028
Quebec, Canada Consumer and Professional ProductsDistribution41,000 Lease2023
Ocala, FLConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing676,000 Leased2030
Grantsville, MDConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing155,000 Owned
Reynosa, MXConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing (owned), Distribution (leased)133,000 Owned /Leased2023
Fairfield, IAConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing54,000 Leased2024
Byhalia, MSConsumer and Professional ProductsDistribution600,000 Leased2025
Guangdong, ChinaConsumer and Professional ProductsManufacturing 211,000 Leased2023
(1) This property is owned by Griffon and is leased to a third party.
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HBP also leases approximately 1,176,000 square feet of space for distribution centers in numerous facilities throughout the U.S. and in Canada. In addition, HBP and CPP leases approximately 331,000 square feet of office space throughout the U.S. and various international locations. CPP also owns approximately 169,000 square feet of additional space for operational wood mills in the U.S.

All facilities are generally well maintained and suitable for the operations conducted.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

Griffon is involved in litigation, investigations and claims arising out of the normal conduct of business, including those relating to commercial transactions, product liability and warranty claims, environmental, employment, and health and safety matters.  Griffon estimates and accrues liabilities resulting from such matters based on a variety of factors, including the stage of the proceeding; potential settlement value; assessments by internal and external counsel; and assessments by environmental engineers and consultants of potential environmental liabilities and remediation costs.  Such estimates are not discounted to reflect the time value of money due to the uncertainty in estimating the timing of the expenditures, which may extend over several years.

While it is impossible to ascertain the ultimate legal and financial liability with respect to certain contingent liabilities and claims, Griffon believes, based upon examination of currently available information, experience to date, and advice from legal counsel, that the individual and aggregate liabilities resulting from the ultimate resolution of these contingent matters, after taking into consideration existing insurance coverage and amounts already provided for, will not have a material adverse impact on consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Refer to Note 16 - Commitments and Contingent Liabilities for a discussion of the Company's litigation.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II


Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Griffon’s Common Stock is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “GFF”.

Dividends

During 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company declared and paid, in quarterly increments, cash dividends totaling $0.36 per share, $0.32 per share and $0.30 per share, respectively. In addition, on June 27, 2022, the Board of Directors declared a special cash dividend of $2.00 per share, paid on July 20, 2022 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on July 8, 2022. The Company currently intends to pay dividends each quarter; however, payment of dividends is determined by the Board of Directors at its discretion based on various factors, and no assurance can be provided as to the payment of future dividends.

On November 16, 2022, the Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.10 per share, payable on December 16, 2022 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on November 29, 2022.

Holders

As of October 31, 2022, there were approximately 12,900 holders of Griffon’s Common Stock.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The following sets forth information relating to Griffon’s equity compensation plans as of September 30, 2022:
 (a)(b)(c)
Plan CategoryNumber of
securities to be
issued upon
exercise of
outstanding options,
warrants and rights
Weighted-
average exercise
price of
outstanding
options, warrants
and rights
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity plans (excluding
securities reflected in
column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by security
holders (1)
— $— 835,122 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— $— — 

(1)Excludes restricted shares and restricted stock units issued in connection with Griffon’s equity compensation plans. The total reflected in column (c) includes shares available for grant as any type of equity award under the Incentive Plan.


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Issuer Purchase of Equity Securities

The table below presents shares of Griffon Stock which were acquired by Griffon during the fourth quarter of 2022:

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Period(a) Total Number
of Shares (or
Units) Purchased
(b) Average
Price Paid Per
Share (or Unit)
(c) Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
(1)
(d) Maximum Number
(or Approximate
Dollar Value) of
Shares (or Units) That
May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs
 
July 1 - 31, 2022— $— —   
August 1 - 31, 2022— — —   
September 1 - 30, 2022— — —   
Total— $— — $57,955 (1)
 
1.Shares, if any, purchased by the Company in open market purchases are pursuant to share repurchases authorized by the Company’s Board of Directors. On each of August 3, 2016 and August 1, 2018, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $50,000 of Griffon common stock; as of September 30, 2022, $57,955 remained available for purchase under these Board authorized repurchase programs.




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Performance Graph
 
The performance graph does not constitute soliciting material, is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not incorporated by reference in any of Griffon’s filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filings, except to the extent Griffon specifically incorporates this performance graph by reference therein.

The following graph sets forth the cumulative total return to Griffon’s stockholders during the five years ended September 30, 2022, as well as an overall stock market (S&P Small Cap 600 Index) and Griffon’s peer group index (Dow Jones U.S. Diversified Industrials Index). Assumes $100 was invested on September 30, 2017, including the reinvestment of dividends, in each category.

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Griffon Corporation, the S&P Smallcap 600 Index
and the Dow Jones US Diversified Industrials Index

https://cdn.kscope.io/8962deb62d60f334d5f591436e8e8caf-gff-20220930_g1.jpg
    

Item 6.    [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Unless otherwise indicated, all references to years or year-end refers to the fiscal year ending September 30 and dollars are in thousands, except per share data)

OVERVIEW

The Company

Griffon Corporation (the “Company”, “Griffon”, "we" or "us") is a diversified management and holding company that conducts business through wholly-owned subsidiaries. Griffon oversees the operations of its subsidiaries, allocates resources among them and manages their capital structures. Griffon provides direction and assistance to its subsidiaries in connection with acquisition and growth opportunities as well as in connection with divestitures. In order to further diversify, Griffon also seeks out, evaluates and, when appropriate, will acquire additional businesses that offer potentially attractive returns on capital.

The Company was founded in 1959, is a Delaware corporation headquartered in New York, N.Y. and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE:GFF).

On September 27, 2021, Griffon announced it was exploring strategic alternatives for its Defense Electronics ("DE") segment, which consisted of our Telephonics Corporation ("Telephonics") subsidiary. On June 27, 2022, we completed the sale of Telephonics to TTM Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ:TTMI) ("TTM") for $330,000 in cash, excluding customary post-closing adjustments, primarily related to working capital. Since September 2021, we have classified the results of operations of our Telephonics business as a discontinued operation in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented and classified the related assets and liabilities associated with the discontinued operation as held for sale in the consolidated balance sheets. Accordingly, all references made to results and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are to Griffon's continuing operations, unless noted otherwise.

Griffon now conducts its operations through two reportable segments:

Consumer and Professional Products (“CPP”) is a leading North American manufacturer and a global provider of branded consumer and professional tools; residential, industrial and commercial fans; home storage and organization products; and products that enhance indoor and outdoor lifestyles. CPP sells products globally through a portfolio of leading brands including AMES, since 1774, Hunter, since 1886, True Temper, and ClosetMaid. CPP revenue was 47%, 54%, and 55% of Griffon’s consolidated revenue in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Home and Building Products ("HBP") conducts its operations through Clopay. Founded in 1964, Clopay is the largest manufacturer and marketer of garage doors and rolling steel doors in North America.  Residential and commercial sectional garage doors are sold through professional dealers and leading home center retail chains throughout North America under the brands Clopay, Ideal, and Holmes. Rolling steel door and grille products designed for commercial, industrial, institutional, and retail use are sold under the Cornell and Cookson brands. HBP revenue was 53%, 46% and 45% of Griffon’s consolidated revenue in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

On May 16, 2022, Griffon announced that its Board of Directors initiated a process to review a comprehensive range of strategic alternatives to maximize shareholder value including a sale, merger, divestiture, recapitalization or other strategic transaction. This process is active and discussions with potential counterparties are ongoing with respect to a number of these options. The Committee on Strategic Considerations, a committee comprised of independent directors who serve on Griffon's Board, is overseeing the process and working with Griffon's management and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, the Company's financial advisor. There is no assurance that the process will result in any transaction being entered into or consummated.

On December 17, 2021, Griffon entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Hunter Fan Company (“Hunter”), a market leader in residential ceiling, commercial, and industrial fans, from MidOcean Partners (“MidOcean”) for a contractual purchase price of $845,000 and completed the acquisition on January 24, 2022. Hunter, part of our CPP segment, complements and diversifies our portfolio of leading consumer brands and products. We financed the acquisition of Hunter with a new $800,000 seven year Term Loan B facility; we used a combination of cash on hand and revolver borrowings to fund the balance of the purchase price and related acquisition and debt expenditures.

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On December 22, 2020, AMES acquired Quatro Design Pty Ltd (“Quatro”), a leading Australian manufacturer and supplier of
glass fiber reinforced concrete landscaping products for residential, commercial, and public sector projects. Quatro contributed approximately $5,000 in revenue in the first twelve months after the acquisition.

In August 2020 Griffon Corporation completed the public offering of 8,700,000 shares of our common stock for total net proceeds of $178,165 (the "Public Offering"). The Company used a portion of the net proceeds to repay outstanding borrowings under its Credit Agreement. The Company used the remainder of the proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes.

On February 19, 2020, Griffon issued, at par, $850,000 of 5.75% Senior Notes due in 2028 and on June 8, 2020 Griffon issued an additional $150,000 of notes under the same indenture at 100.25% of par (collectively the "2028 Senior Notes"). Proceeds from the 2028 Senior Notes were used to redeem the $1,000,000 of 5.25% Senior Notes due 2022 (the "2022 Senior Notes").

In January 2020, Griffon amended its credit agreement to increase the total amount available for borrowing from $350,000 to $400,000, extend its maturity date from March 22, 2021 to March 22, 2025 and modify certain other provisions of the facility (the "Credit Agreement").

On November 29, 2019, AMES acquired Vatre Group Limited ("Apta"), a leading United Kingdom supplier of innovative garden pottery and associated products sold to leading UK and Ireland garden centers for approximately $10,500 (GBP 8,750), inclusive of a post-closing working capital adjustment, net of cash acquired. This acquisition broadens AMES' product offerings in the UK market and increases its in-country operational footprint. Apta contributed approximately $20,000 in revenue in the first 12 months after the acquisition.

Update of COVID-19 on Our Business

The health and safety of our employees, our customers and their families is always a high priority for Griffon. As of the date of this filing, all of Griffon's facilities are fully operational. When COVID-19 struck, we implemented a variety of new policies and procedures, including additional cleaning, social distancing, staggered shifts and prohibiting or significantly restricting on-site visitors, to minimize the risk to our employees of contracting COVID-19. While many of these precautions have been relaxed or eliminated as the health risk of COVID-19 has decreased, we would not hesitate to reinstitute and/or modify these policies and procedures as necessary should the health risk return to an unacceptable level. In such event, our businesses or our suppliers could be required by government authorities to temporarily cease operations; might be limited in their production capacity due to complying with restrictions relating to the operation of businesses to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19; or could suffer their own supply chain disruptions, impacting their ability to continue to supply us with the quantity of materials required by us. While we are unable to determine or predict the nature, duration or scope of the overall impact COVID-19 will have on our businesses, results of operations, liquidity or capital resources, we believe it is important to discuss where our company stands today, how we have responded (and will continue to respond) to COVID 19 and how our operations and financial condition may change as COVID-19 evolves. See information provided in Part 1, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K.





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CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

2022 Compared to 2021

Revenue for the year ended September 30, 2022 of $2,848,488 compared to $2,270,626 for the year ended September 30, 2021 increased 25% resulting from increased revenue at HBP and CPP of 45% and 9%, respectively. Hunter (purchased on January 24, 2022) contributed $246,474 of revenue in 2022.

Gross profit for 2022 was $936,886 compared to $641,113 in 2021. Gross profit as a percent of sales (“gross margin”) for 2022 and 2021 was 32.9% and 28.2%, respectively. In the years ended 2022 and 2021, gross profit included restructuring charges of $7,964 and $7,923, respectively. In the year ended 2022, gross profit also included amortization of $5,401 related to the fair value step-up of acquired inventory sold in connection with the Hunter Fan acquisition. Excluding these charges from both years, gross profit would have been $950,251 or 33.4% of revenue, compared to $649,036 or 28.6% in the prior year.

Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses in 2022 of $608,926 increased 29% from $470,530 in 2021. The 2022 SG&A expenses included restructuring charges of $8,818, acquisition costs of $9,303, strategic review (retention and other) of $9,683, special dividend ESOP charges of $10,538, proxy expenses of $6,952. The 2021 SG&A expenses included restructuring charges of $13,495. Excluding these items from both periods, 2022 SG&A expenses would have been $563,632, or 19.8% of revenue compared to $457,035 or 20.1%, with the increase in expenses primarily due to the inclusion of expenses related to Hunter, which was acquired in January 2022, and increased distribution and shipping costs.

In connection with the preparation of our financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, Griffon performed its annual impairment testing of its goodwill and indefinite lived intangibles. Indicators of impairment were present due to decreases in comparable company market multiples for the CPP reporting units and increased interest rates, and the related impact on weighted average cost of capital rates. Accordingly, a quantitative assessment was performed, which resulted in non-cash, pre-tax impairment charges for goodwill and indefinite lived intangibles of $342,027 and $175,000. respectively, recorded in the fourth fiscal quarter of 2022.

Interest expense in 2022 of $84,379 increased 34% compared to 2021 of $63,175, primarily as a result of increased debt levels related to the $800,000 seven year Term Loan B facility entered into in connection with the Hunter acquisition, of which Griffon repaid $300,000 aggregate principal amount in the third quarter of 2022.

Other income (expense) of $6,881 and $2,107 in 2022 and 2021, respectively, includes $305 and ($81), respectively, of net currency exchange transaction gains (losses) from receivables and payables held in non-functional currencies, $(225) and $283, respectively, of net gains (losses) on investments, and $4,256 and $907, respectively, of net periodic benefit plan income. Other income (expense) also includes rental income of $689 in 2022 and $624 in 2021. Additionally, it includes royalty income of $2,250 for the year ended September 30, 2022.

Griffon reported Income (loss) before tax from continuing operations for 2022 of $(270,879) compared to $109,955 for 2021. In 2022, the Company had an effective income tax rate of (6.2)% compared to 36.1% in 2021.  The 2022 tax rate included $3,913 of discrete and certain other tax provisions net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below. The 2021 tax rate included $3,245 of discrete and certain other tax provisions, net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below. Excluding the discrete and certain other tax provisions, net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below, the effective income tax rates for 2022 and 2021 were 29.0% and 31.7%, respectively. These rates reflect the impact of tax reserves and changes in earnings mix between U.S. and non-U.S. operations.

Loss from continuing operations for 2022 was $287,715, or $5.57 per share, compared to Income from continuing operations of $70,302, or $1.32 per share in 2021. The 2022 income from continuing operations included the following:

Restructuring charges of $16,782 ($12,479, net of tax, or $0.23 per share);
– Debt extinguishment, net $4,529 ($3,474, net of tax, or $0.06 per share);
Acquisition costs of $9,303 ($8,149, net of tax, or $0.15 per share);
– Strategic review - retention and other of $9,683 ($7,280, net of tax, or $0.13 per share);
– Special dividend ESOP charges of $10,538 ($8,083, net of tax, or $0.15 per share);
– Proxy expenses of $6,952 ($5,359, net of tax, or $0.10 per share);
– Fair value step-up of acquired inventory sold of $5,401 ($4,012, net of tax, or $0.07 per share);
– Goodwill and intangible asset impairments of $517,027 ($454,753, net of tax, or $8.43 per share); and
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Discrete and certain other tax provision, net, of $3,913 or 0.07 per share.

The 2021 income from continuing operations included the following:
Restructuring charges of $21,418 ($16,131, net of tax, or $0.30 per share); and
Discrete and certain other tax provision, net, of $3,245 or $0.06 per share.

Excluding these items from both reporting periods, 2022 Income from continuing operations would have been $219,786, or $4.07 per share compared to $89,678, or $1.68 per share, in 2021.

2021 Compared to 2020

Revenue for the year ended September 30, 2021 of $2,270,626 compared to $2,066,546 in the year ended September 30, 2020 increased 10% resulting from increased revenue at HBP and CPP of 12% and 8%, respectively.

Gross profit for 2021 was $641,113 compared to $583,994 in 2020. Gross margin as a percent of sales (“gross margin”) for 2021 and 2020 was 28.2% and 28.3%, respectively. In the years ended 2021 and 2020, gross profit included restructuring charges of $7,923 and $4,159, respectively. Excluding restructuring charges from both years, gross profit would have been $649,036 or 28.6% of revenue, compared to $588,153 or 28.5% in the prior year.

Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses in 2021 of $470,530 increased 6% from $444,454 in 2020. The 2021 SG&A expenses included restructuring charges of $13,495. The 2020 SG&A expenses included restructuring charges of $9,510, acquisition costs of $2,960 and income from the reversal of contingent consideration related to the Kelkay acquisition of $1,733. Excluding these items from both periods, the 2021 SG&A expenses would have been $457,035, or 20.1% of revenue compared to $433,717 or 21.0%, with the increase in expenses primarily due to increased distribution and shipping costs.

Interest expense in 2021 of $63,175 decreased 5% compared to 2020 of $66,544, primarily as a result of decreased outstanding borrowings and decreased variable interest rates on our Revolving Credit Facility.

Other income (expense) of $2,107 and $1,661 in 2021 and 2020, respectively, includes $81 and $915, respectively, of net currency exchange transaction losses from receivables and payables held in non-functional currencies, $283 and $184, respectively, of net gains on investments, and $907 and $1,559, respectively, of net periodic benefit plan income. Other income (expense) also includes rental income of $624 in both 2021 and 2020.

Griffon reported Income before tax from continuing operations for 2021 of $109,955 compared to $67,481 for 2020. In 2021, the Company had an effective income tax rate of 36.1% compared to 38.6% in 2020.  The 2021 tax rate included $3,245 of discrete and certain other tax provisions, net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below. The 2020 tax rate included $966 of discrete and certain other tax provisions, net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below. Excluding the discrete and certain other tax provisions, net, and other items that affect comparability, as listed below, the effective income tax rates for 2021 and 2020 were 31.7% and 33.9%, respectively. These rates reflect the impact of tax reserves and changes in earnings mix between U.S. and non-U.S. operations.

Income from continuing operations for 2021 was $70,302, or $1.32 per share, compared to $41,444, or $0.92 per share in 2020. The 2021 income from continuing operations included the following:

Restructuring charges of $21,418 ($16,131, net of tax, or $0.30 per share); and
Discrete and certain other tax provision, net, of $3,245 or $0.06 per share.

The 2020 income from continuing operations included the following:

Restructuring charges of $13,669 ($10,177, net of tax, or $0.23 per share);
Loss from debt extinguishment $7,925 ($6,167, net of tax, or $0.14 per share);
Acquisition costs of $2,960 ($2,297, net of tax, or $0.05 per share); and
Acquisition contingent consideration benefit of $1,733 ($1,403, net of tax, or $0.03 per share); and
Discrete and certain other tax provision, net, of $966 or $0.02 per share.

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Excluding these items from both reporting periods, 2021 Income from continuing operations would have been $89,678, or $1.68 per share compared to $59,647, or $1.33 per share, in 2020.
Griffon evaluates performance based on Earnings (loss) per share and Income (loss) from continuing operations excluding non-cash impairment charges, restructuring charges, debt extinguishment, acquisition related expenses, discrete and certain other tax items, as well other items that may affect comparability, as applicable. Griffon believes this information is useful to investors for the same reason. The following table provides a reconciliation of Income (loss) from continuing operations to Adjusted income from continuing operations and Earnings (loss) per common share from continuing operations to Adjusted earnings per common share from continuing operations:
GRIFFON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
RECONCILIATION OF INCOME (LOSS) FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS
TO ADJUSTED INCOME FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS
(Unaudited) 
For the Years Ended September 30,
 202220212020
Income (loss) from continuing operations$(287,715)$70,302 $41,444 
Adjusting items: 
Restructuring charges16,782 21,418 13,669 
Debt extinguishment, net4,529 — 7,925 
Acquisition costs9,303 — 2,960 
Strategic review - retention and other9,683 — — 
Acquisition contingent consideration— — (1,733)
Special dividend ESOP charges10,538 — — 
Proxy expenses6,952 — — 
Fair value step-up of acquired inventory sold5,401 — — 
Goodwill and intangible asset impairments517,027 — — 
Tax impact of above items1
(76,627)(5,287)(5,584)
Discrete and other certain tax provision3,913 3,245 966 
Adjusted income from continuing operations$219,786 $89,678 $59,647 
Earnings (loss) per common share from continuing operations$(5.57)$1.32 $0.92 
Adjusting items, net of tax: 
Anti-dilutive share impact2
0.24 — — 
Restructuring charges0.23 0.30 0.23 
Debt extinguishment, net0.06 — 0.14 
Acquisition costs0.15 — 0.05 
Strategic review - retention and other0.13 — — 
Acquisition contingent consideration— — (0.03)
Special dividend ESOP charges0.15 — — 
Proxy expenses0.10 — — 
Fair value step-up of acquired inventory sold0.07 — — 
Goodwill and intangible asset impairments8.43 — — 
Discrete and other certain tax (benefit) provision0.07 0.06 0.02 
Adjusted earnings per share from continuing operations$4.07 1.68 $1.33 
Weighted-average shares outstanding (in thousands)51,672 53,369 45,015 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding (in thousands)2
53,966 53,369 45,015 
Note: Due to rounding, the sum of earnings per common share and adjusting items, net of tax, may not equal adjusted earnings per common share.
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(1) Tax impact for the above reconciling adjustments from GAAP to non-GAAP Income from continuing operations and the related EPS is determined by comparing the Company's tax provision, including the reconciling adjustments, to the tax provision excluding such adjustments.

(2) Loss from continuing operations is calculated using basic shares on the face of the income statement. Per share impact of using diluted shares represents the impact of converting from the basic shares used in calculating earnings per share from the Loss from continuing operations to the diluted shares used in calculating earnings per share form the adjusted income from continuing operations.


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REPORTABLE SEGMENTS

Griffon evaluates performance and allocates resources based on each segment's operating results from continuing operations before interest income and expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, unallocated amounts (primarily corporate overhead), non-cash impairment charges, restructuring charges, debt extinguishment and acquisition related expenses, as well as other items that may affect comparability, as applicable (“Adjusted EBITDA”, a non-GAAP measure). Griffon believes this information is useful to investors for the same reason.

See table provided in Note 18 - Reportable Segments, for a reconciliation of Segment Adjusted EBITDA to Income before taxes from continuing operations.

Consumer and Professional Products
 For the Years Ended September 30,
 202220212020
      
United States$858,956 $766,150 $769,100 
Europe106,471 123,607 85,339 
Canada92,930 85,676 74,072 
Australia258,945 244,674 203,012 
All other countries24,304 9,411 7,710 
Total Revenue$1,341,606  $1,229,518  $1,139,233  
Adjusted EBITDA$99,308 7.4 %$115,673 9.4 %$104,053 9.1 %
Depreciation and amortization$47,562 $34,433 $32,788 
 
2022 Compared to 2021

CPP revenue in 2022 increased $112,088, or 9%, compared to 2021, primarily resulting from a 20% or $246,474 contribution from the Hunter acquisition, and price and mix of 11%. These benefits were partially offset by a 20% reduction in volume primarily from reduced consumer demand and rebalancing of customer inventory levels in North America and the United Kingdom (U.K.), in part offset by Australia. Foreign exchange was an unfavorable impact of 2%.

CPP Adjusted EBITDA in 2022 decreased 14% to $99,308 compared to $115,673 in 2021. Excluding the Hunter contribution of $43,579, EBITDA of $55,729 decreased 52% primarily due to the unfavorable impact of the reduced volume noted above and the related impact on manufacturing absorption, and increased material, labor and transportation costs, partially offset by the benefits of price and mix. The year ended September 30, 2022 included increased demurrage and detention costs, primarily related to COVID-19 and global supply chain disruptions, of approximately $15,172 ($9,512 related to Hunter).

Segment depreciation and amortization increased $13,129 from the comparable prior year period primarily due to depreciation for new assets placed in service and the Hunter assets acquired.

On January 24, 2022, Griffon completed the acquisition of Hunter Fan Company (“Hunter”), a market leader in residential ceiling, commercial, and industrial fans for a contractual purchase price of $845,000. Hunter adds to Griffon's CPP segment, complementing and diversifying our portfolio of leading consumer brands and products.

On December 22, 2020, AMES acquired Quatro Design Pty Ltd (“Quatro”), a leading Australian manufacturer and supplier of glass fiber reinforced concrete landscaping products for residential, commercial, and public sector projects, for approximately AU$3,500.

Strategic Initiative and Restructuring Charges
In November 2019, Griffon announced the development of a next-generation business platform for CPP to enhance the growth, efficiency, and competitiveness of its U.S. operations, and on November 12, 2020, Griffon announced that CPP was broadening this strategic initiative to include additional North American facilities, the AMES United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia businesses, and a manufacturing facility in China. On April 28, 2022, Griffon announced a reduced scope and an accelerated timeline for the initiative, which was completed in fiscal 2022. These changes reflect the rapid progress made with the
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initiative, and reduced investment in facilities expansion and equipment given recent significant increases in construction and equipment costs. Any remaining expenditures, after the end of fiscal 2022, including those related to the deployment of AMES' global information systems, will be included in the continuing operations of the business. Future investments in equipment, particularly for automation, will be part of normal-course annual capital expenditures.

This initiative included three key development areas. First, certain AMES U.S. and global operations were consolidated to optimize facilities footprint and talent. Second, strategic investments in automation and facilities expansion were made to increase the efficiency of our manufacturing and fulfillment operations, and support e-commerce growth. Third, multiple independent information systems were unified into a single data and analytics platform, which will serve the whole AMES global enterprise.

We continue to expect that this initiative with result in annual cash savings of $25,000. Realization of expected cash savings will begin in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. The cost to implement this new business platform, over the duration of the project, included one-time charges of approximately $51,869 and capital investments of approximately $15,000, net of future proceeds from the sale of exited facilities. Cumulative charges of $51,869 consisted of cash charges totaling $35,691 and non-cash, asset-related charges totaling $16,178; the cash charges included $12,934 for one-time termination benefits and other personnel-related costs and $22,757 for facility exit costs. During the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, CPP incurred pre-tax restructuring and related exit costs approximating $16,782 and $21,418, respectively. During the years ended September, 30, 2022 and 2021, capital expenditures of $6,337 and $8,774, respectively, were driven by investment in CPP business intelligence systems and e-commerce facility.
Cash ChargesNon-Cash Charges
Personnel related costsFacilities, exit costs and otherFacility and other Total Capital Investments
Phase I$12,000 $4,000 $19,000 35,000 $40,000 
Phase II14,000 16,000 — 30,000 25,000 
Increase (Reduction) in Scope(13,066)2,757 (2,822)(13,131)(50,000)
Total Charges12,934 22,757 16,178 51,869 15,000 
Total 2020 restructuring charges(5,620)(3,357)(4,692)(13,669)(6,733)
Total 2021 restructuring charges(3,190)(11,573)(6,655)(21,418)(8,774)
Total 2022 restructuring charges(4,124)(7,827)(4,831)(16,782)(6,337)
Total cumulative charges$(12,934)$(22,757)$(16,178)$(51,869)$(21,844)
 Estimate to Complete$— $— $— $— $(6,844)(a)
(a) Includes future proceeds from the sale of exited facilities.

2021 Compared to 2020

CPP revenue in 2021 increased $90,285, or 8%, compared to 2020, comprised of a 3% increase in volume, driven by increased consumer demand across all international geographies, partially offset by reduced volume in the U.S. due to labor, transportation and supply chain disruptions. Revenue also benefited from favorable price and mix of 1%, and a favorable impact from foreign exchange of 4%.

CPP Adjusted EBITDA in 2021 increased $11,620 or 11% to $115,673 compared to $104,053 in 2020. The favorable variance resulted primarily from the increased revenue noted above and a favorable foreign exchange impact of 5%, partially offset by increased U.S. material costs coupled with the lag in realization of price increases and COVID-19 related inefficiencies.









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Home and Building Products
 For the Years Ended September 30,
 202220212020
      
Residential$876,816 $633,523 $572,397 
Commercial630,066 407,585 354,916 
Total Revenue$1,506,882  $1,041,108  $927,313  
Adjusted EBITDA$412,738 27.4 %$181,015 17.4 %$153,631 16.6 %
Depreciation and amortization$16,539 $17,370 $18,361  

2022 Compared to 2021
HBP revenue in 2022 increased $465,774, or 45%, compared to 2021, primarily due to favorable pricing and mix of 47% driven by both residential and commercial. Total volume decreased 2%, primarily due to labor and supply chain disruptions impacting residential deliveries, partially offset by increased commercial volume.

HBP Adjusted EBITDA in 2022 increased 128% to $412,738 compared to $181,015 in 2021. EBITDA benefited from the increased revenue noted above, partially offset by increased material, labor and transportation costs.

Segment depreciation and amortization decreased $831 from the comparable prior year period primarily due to fully depreciated assets.

2021 Compared to 2020
HBP revenue in 2021 increased $113,795, or 12%, compared to 2020, primarily due to favorable mix and pricing of 8% driven by both residential and commercial, and increased volume of 4% equally driven by both residential and commercial.

HBP Adjusted EBITDA in 2021 increased $27,384, or 18% to $181,015 compared to $153,631 in 2020. EBITDA benefited from the increased revenue noted above, partially offset by increased material costs coupled with the lag in realization of price increases and COVID-19 related inefficiencies.

Unallocated Amounts

For 2022, unallocated amounts, excluding depreciation, consisted primarily of corporate overhead costs, totaled $53,888 compared to $50,278 in 2021, with the increase primarily due to compensation and incentive costs.

For 2021, unallocated amounts, excluding depreciation, consisted primarily of corporate overhead costs, totaled $50,278 compared to $49,487 in 2020, with the increase primarily due to compensation and incentive costs.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization of $64,658 in 2022 compared to $52,302 in 2021; the increase was primarily due to depreciation for new assets placed in service and the Hunter assets acquired.

Depreciation and amortization of $52,302 in 2021 compared to $52,100 in 2020; the increase was primarily due to depreciation for new assets placed in service.

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Comprehensive Income (Loss)

During 2022, total other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes, of $(36,761) included a loss of $37,920 from foreign currency translation adjustments primarily due to the weakening of the British, Australian and Canadian currencies, all in comparison to the U.S. Dollar; a $1,503 gain from pension and other post-retirement benefits, primarily associated with an increase in the assumed discount rate compared to 2021; and a $344 loss on cash flow hedges.
During 2021, total other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes, of $26,115 included a gain of $6,433 from foreign currency translation adjustments primarily due to the strengthening of the British, Australian and Canadian currencies, all in comparison to the U.S. Dollar; a $17,796 gain from pension and other post-retirement benefits, primarily related to the change between actual and expected return on assets compared to 2020; and a $1,886 gain on cash flow hedges.

DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS

Defense Electronics

On September 27, 2021, Griffon announced it was exploring strategic alternatives for its Defense Electronics segment, which consisted of Telephonics Corporation ("Telephonics"), and on June 27, 2022, Griffon completed the sale of Telephonics to TTM for $330,000, excluding customary post-closing adjustments, primarily related to working capital. As a result, Griffon classified the results of operations of the Telephonics business as a discontinued operation in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented and classified the related assets and liabilities associated with the discontinued operation as held for sale in the consolidated balance sheets. Accordingly, all references made to results and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are to Griffon's continuing operations unless noted otherwise.

At September 30, 2022 and 2021, Griffon's discontinued assets and liabilities includes the Company's obligation of $8,846 in connection with the sale of Telephonics related to certain customary post-closing adjustments, primarily working capital and retention bonuses. At September 30, 2022 and 2021, Griffon’s liabilities for Installations Services and other discontinued operations primarily related to insurance claims, income taxes, product liability, warranty and environmental reserves totaled $10,049 and $7,074, respectively. See Note 8, Discontinued Operations.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Liquidity

Management assesses Griffon’s liquidity in terms of its ability to generate cash to fund its operating, investing and financing activities. Significant factors affecting liquidity include cash flows from operating activities, capital expenditures, acquisitions, dispositions, bank lines of credit and the ability to attract long-term capital under satisfactory terms. Griffon believes it has sufficient liquidity available to invest in existing businesses and strategic acquisitions while managing its capital structure on both a short-term and long-term basis.

As of September 30, 2022, the amount of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities held by foreign subsidiaries was $54,200. Our intent is to permanently reinvest these funds outside the U.S., and we do not currently anticipate that we will need funds generated from foreign operations to fund our domestic operations. In the event we determine that funds from foreign operations are needed to fund operations in the U.S., we will be required to accrue and pay U.S. taxes to repatriate these funds (unless applicable U.S. taxes have already been paid).

Griffon's primary sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations, cash on hand and our January 2025 five-year secured $400,000 revolving credit facility ("Credit Facility"). During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, the Company generated $59,240 of net cash from continuing operating activities and had $290,385 available, subject to certain loan covenants, for borrowing on September 30, 2022.

The table below provides a summary of the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the periods indicated.
Cash Flows from Continuing OperationsYears Ended September 30,
(in thousands)20222021
Net Cash Flows Provided By (Used In):  
Operating activities$59,240 $69,808 
Investing activities(583,227)(56,167)
Financing activities393,345 (28,245)
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Cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations for 2022 was $59,240 compared to $69,808 in 2021, a decrease of $10,568. For 2022, Net income from continuing operations adjusted for items to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations was offset by increased working capital, predominately consisting of increased inventory, receivables and prepaid and other current assets and a decrease in accounts payable, accrued liabilities and income tax payable. For 2021, Net income from continuing operations adjusted for items to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations was offset by increased working capital, predominately consisting of increased inventory, receivables, and prepaid and other current assets, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable, accrued liabilities and income tax payable.
Cash flows from investing activities from continuing operations is primarily comprised of capital expenditures and business acquisitions as well as proceeds from the sale of businesses, investments and property, plant and equipment. During 2022, Griffon used $583,227 in investing activities from continuing operations compared to $56,167 in 2021. Payments for acquired businesses totaled $851,464 in 2022 to acquire Hunter compared to $2,242 in 2021 to acquire Quatro. On January 24, 2022, Griffon acquired Hunter, a market leader in residential ceiling, commercial, and industrial fans, and on December 22, 2020, AMES acquired Quatro, a leading Australian manufacturer and supplier of glass fiber reinforced concrete landscaping products for residential, commercial, and public sector projects. On June 27, 2022, the Company completed the sale of Telephonics to TTM for $330,000, excluding customary post-closing adjustments, primarily related to working capital. Capital expenditures, net of proceeds from the sale of assets, totaled $42,398 in 2022 compared to $36,714 in 2021. Proceeds from the sale of investments totaled $14,923 in 2022 compared to cash used to purchase investments of $17,211 in the prior year comparable period.
Cash provided by financing activities from continuing operations was $393,345 in 2022 compared to cash used in financing activities of $28,245 in 2021. During 2022, cash flows from financing activities from continuing operations primarily consisted of the payment of dividends of $126,677, purchase of treasury shares to satisfy vesting of restricted stock of $10,886 and net proceeds from long-term debt of $547,715. During 2022, Griffon prepaid $300,000 aggregate principal amount of the Term Loan B, which permanently reduced the outstanding balance. In connection with the prepayment of the Term Loan B Griffon recognized a $6,296 charge related to the write-off of capitalized debt issuance costs. In addition, during 2022, Griffon purchased $25,225 of 2028 Senior Notes in the open market at a weighted average discount of 91.82% of par, or $23,161. In connection with these purchases, Griffon recognized a $1,767 net gain on the early extinguishment of debt. During 2021, cash flows from financing activities from continuing operations primarily consisted of the payment of dividends of $17,139, purchase of treasury shares to satisfy vesting of restricted stock of $3,357 and net repayments of long-term debt and lease payments of $6,921. At September 30, 2022, there were $97,328 in outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement, compared to $13,483 in outstanding borrowings at the same date in 2021.

During 2022, the Board of Directors approved four quarterly cash dividends each for $0.09 per share, totaling $0.36. In addition, on June 27, 2022, the Board of Directors declared a special cash dividend of $2.00 per share, paid on July 20, 2022 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on July 8, 2022. The Company currently intends to pay dividends each quarter; however, payment of dividends is determined by the Board of Directors at its discretion based on various factors, and no assurance can be provided as to the payment of future dividends. On November 16, 2022, the Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.10 per share, payable on December 16, 2022 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on November 29, 2022.

During 2022, 421,860 shares, with a market value of $10,742, or $25.46 per share were withheld to settle employee taxes due upon the vesting of restricted stock and were added to treasury stock. During 2022, an additional 5,480 shares, with a market value of $144, or $26.31 per share, were withheld from common stock issued upon the vesting of restricted stock units to settle employee taxes due upon vesting.

On each of August 3, 2016 and August 1, 2018, Griffon’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $50,000 of Griffon’s outstanding common stock. Under these share repurchase programs, the Company may purchase shares in the open market, including pursuant to a 10b5-1 plan, or in privately negotiated transactions. During 2021, Griffon did not purchase any shares of common stock under these repurchase programs. At September 30, 2022, $57,955 remains under Griffon's Board authorized repurchase programs.

During 2022 and 2021, cash provided by discontinued operations from operating activities of $10,198 and $41,961, respectively, primarily related to DE operations and the payment of income taxes, stay bonuses and transaction related expenses as well as payments associated with the settling of certain Installation services and environmental liabilities. During 2022, cash used by discontinued operations from investing activities of $(2,627) primarily related to DE capital expenditures. During 2021, $6,751 cash provided by discontinued operations from investing activities was comprised of net proceeds received of $14,345 from DE's sale of its SEG business less capital expenditures of $10,343 and a recovery of insurance proceeds received of $2,749 associated with other discontinued operations.
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Debt

At September 30, 2022 and 2021, Griffon had debt, net of cash and equivalents, as follows:
Cash and Equivalents and DebtAt September 30,At September 30,
(in thousands)20222021
Cash and equivalents$120,184 $248,653 
Notes payables and current portion of long-term debt$12,653 $12,486 
Long-term debt, net of current maturities1,560,998 1,033,197 
Debt discount and issuance costs21,909 14,823 
Total debt1,595,560 1,060,506 
Debt, net of cash and equivalents$1,475,376 $811,853 
During 2020, Griffon issued, at par $1,000,000 of 5.75% Senior Notes due 2028 (the "2028 Senior Notes"). Proceeds from the 2028 Senior Notes were used to redeem the $1,000,000 of 5.25% Senior Notes due 2022 (the "2022 Senior Notes"). In connection with the issuance and exchange of the 2028 Senior Notes, Griffon capitalized $16,448 of underwriting fees and other expenses incurred, which will amortize over the term of such notes. Additionally, during 2020 Griffon recognized a $7,925 loss on the early extinguishment of debt of the 2022 Senior Notes, comprised primarily of the write-off of $6,725 of remaining deferred financing fees, $607 of tender offer net premium expense and $593 of redemption interest expense. Furthermore, all of the obligations associated with the 2022 Senior Notes were discharged.

During the year ended September 30, 2022, Griffon purchased $25,225 of 2028 Senior Notes in the open market at a weighted average discount of 91.82% of par, or $23,161. In connection with these purchases, Griffon recognized a $1,767 net gain on the early extinguishment of debt comprised of $2,064 of face value in excess of purchase price, offset by $297 related to the write-off of underwriting fees and other expenses. As of September 30, 2022, outstanding 2028 Senior Notes due totaled $974,775; interest is payable semi-annually on March 1 and September 1.

The 2028 Senior Notes are senior unsecured obligations of Griffon guaranteed by certain domestic subsidiaries, and subject to certain covenants, limitations and restrictions. The 2028 Senior Notes were registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act") via an exchange offer. The fair value of the 2028 Senior Notes approximated $833,433 on September 30, 2022 based upon quoted market prices (level 1 inputs). At September 30, 2022, $10,939 of underwriting fees and other expenses incurred remained to be amortized.

On January 24, 2022, Griffon amended and restated its Revolving Credit Facility (as amended, the "Credit Agreement") to provide for a new $800,000 Term Loan B facility, due January 24, 2029, in addition to its current $400,000 revolving credit facility ("Revolver"), and replaced LIBOR with SOFR (Secured Overnight Financing Rate). The Term Loan B contains a SOFR floor of 0.50% and a current spread of 2.50%. Additionally, there are two interest rate step-downs tied to achieving decreased secured leverage ratio thresholds, the first of which was achieved during the year ended September 30, 2022. The Original Issue Discount for the Term Loan B was 99.75%. In connection with this amendment, Griffon capitalized $15,466 of underwriting fees and other expenses incurred, which are being amortized over the term of the loan.

The Term Loan B facility requires nominal quarterly principal payments of $2,000, which began with the quarter ended June 30, 2022; potential additional annual principal payments based on a percentage of excess cash flow and certain secured leverage thresholds starting with the fiscal year ending September 30, 2023; and a final balloon payment due at maturity. Term Loan B borrowings may generally be repaid without penalty but may not be re-borrowed. During the year ended September 30, 2022, Griffon prepaid $300,000 aggregate principal amount of the Term Loan B, which permanently reduced the outstanding balance. In connection with the prepayment of the Term Loan B Griffon recognized a $6,296 charge on the prepayment of debt, $5,575 related to the write-off of underwriting fees and other expenses and $721 of the original issue discount. The Term Loan B facility is subject to the same affirmative and negative covenants that apply to the Revolver, but is not subject to any financial maintenance covenants. Term Loan B borrowings are secured by the same collateral as the Revolver. The fair value of the Term Loan B facility approximated $476,160 on September 30, 2022 based upon quoted market prices (level 1 inputs). At September 30, 2022, $8,823 of underwriting fees and other expenses incurred remained to be amortized.

The Revolver's maximum borrowing availability is $400,000 and it matures on March 22, 2025. The Revolver includes a letter of credit sub-facility with a limit of $100,000; a multi-currency sub-facility of $200,000; and contains a customary accordion feature that permits us to request, subject to each lender's consent, an increase in the maximum aggregate amount that can be borrowed by up to an additional $100,000.
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In addition, on December 9, 2021, Griffon replaced the Revolver GBP LIBOR benchmark rate with a Sterling Overnight Index Average ("SONIA"). Borrowings under the Revolver may be repaid and re-borrowed at any time. Interest is payable on borrowings at either a SOFR, SONIA or base rate benchmark rate, plus an applicable margin, which adjusts based on financial performance. Current margins are 0.50% for base rate loans, 1.50% for SOFR loans and 1.50% for SONIA loans. The Revolver has certain financial maintenance tests including a maximum total leverage ratio, a maximum senior secured leverage ratio and a minimum interest coverage ratio, as well as customary affirmative and negative covenants and events of default. The negative covenants place limits on Griffon's ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness, incur liens, and make restricted payments and investments. Both the Revolver and Term Loan B borrowings under the Credit Agreement are guaranteed by Griffon’s material domestic subsidiaries and are secured, on a first priority basis, by substantially all domestic assets of the Company and the guarantors, and a pledge of not greater than 65% of the equity interest in Griffon’s material, first-tier foreign subsidiaries. At September 30, 2022, under the Credit Agreement, there were $97,328 in outstanding borrowings; outstanding standby letters of credit were $12,287; and $290,385 was available, subject to certain loan covenants, for borrowing at that date.

At September 30, 2022, Griffon and its subsidiaries were in compliance with the terms and covenants of its credit and loan agreements. Net Debt to EBITDA (Leverage), as calculated in accordance with the definition in the Credit Agreement, was 2.89x at September 30, 2022.

Griffon has one finance lease outstanding for real estate located in Ocala, Florida. The lease matures in 2025 and bears interest at a fixed rate of approximately 5.6%. The Ocala, Florida lease contains two five-year renewal options. At September 30, 2022, $13,091 was outstanding. During the year ended September 30, 2022, the financing lease on the Troy, Ohio location expired. The lease bore interest at a rate of approximately 5.0%, was secured by a mortgage on the real estate, which was guaranteed by Griffon, and had a one dollar buyout at the end of the lease. Griffon exercised the one dollar buyout option in November 2021.

In November 2012, Garant G.P. (“Garant”), a Griffon wholly owned subsidiary, entered into a CAD 15,000 ($10,956 as of September 30, 2022) revolving credit facility. The facility accrues interest at LIBOR (USD) or the Bankers Acceptance Rate (CDN) plus 1.3% per annum (4.44% LIBOR USD and 4.76% Bankers Acceptance Rate CDN as of September 30, 2022). The revolving facility was amended and matures in October 2024, and is renewable upon mutual agreement with the lender. Garant is required to maintain a certain minimum equity. As of September 30, 2022, there were no borrowings under the revolving credit facility with CAD 15,000 ($10,956 as of September 30, 2022) available for borrowing.

In March 2022, Griffon Australia Holdings Pty Ltd and its Australian subsidiaries (collectively, "Griffon Australia") amended its AUD 18,375 term loan, AUD 20,000 revolver and AUD 15,000 receivable purchase facility agreement that was entered into in July 2016 and further amended in fiscal 2020. Griffon Australia paid off the term loan in the amount of AUD 9,625 and canceled the AUD 20,000 revolver. The amendment refinanced the existing AUD 15,000 receivable purchase facility. The receivable purchase facility matures in March 2023, but is renewable upon mutual agreement with the lender. The receivable purchase facility accrues interest at BBSY (Bank Bill Swap Rate) plus 1.25% per annum (3.96% at September 30, 2022). At September 30, 2022, there was no balance outstanding under the receivable purchase facility with AUD $15,000 ($9,722 as of September 30, 2022) available. The receivable purchase facility is secured by substantially all of the assets of Griffon Australia and its subsidiaries. Griffon Australia is required to maintain a certain minimum equity level.

In July 2018, the AMES Companies UK Ltd and its subsidiaries (collectively, "Ames UK") entered into a GBP 14,000 term loan, GBP 4,000 mortgage loan and GBP 5,000 revolver. The term loan and mortgage loan require quarterly principal payments of GBP 438 and GBP 105 plus interest, respectively, and have balloon payments due upon maturity, July 2023, of GBP 7,088 and GBP 2,349, respectively. Effective in January 2022, the Term Loan and Mortgage Loan were amended to replace GBP LIBOR with SONIA. The Term Loan and Mortgage Loans each accrue interest at the SONIA Rate plus 1.80% (3.99% at September 30, 2022). The revolving facility accrues interest at the Bank of England Base Rate plus 3.25% (5.50% as of September 30, 2022). The revolving credit facility matures in July 2023, but is renewable upon mutual agreement with the lender. As of September 30, 2022, the revolver had no outstanding balance while the term and mortgage loan balances amounted to GBP $11,060 ($12,090 as of September 30, 2022). The revolver and the term loan are both secured by substantially all the assets of AMES UK and its subsidiaries. AMES UK is subject to a maximum leverage ratio and a minimum fixed charges cover ratio.

Other long-term debt primarily consists of a loan with the Pennsylvania Industrial Development Authority, with the balance consisting of finance leases.

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Capital Resource Requirements

Griffon's debt requirements include principal on our outstanding debt, most notably our Senior Notes totaling $974,775 payable in 2028 and related annual interest payments of $57,105. As noted above, Griffon entered into a new $800,000 seven year Term Loan B facility with initial pricing of a SOFR floor of 50 basis points plus a spread of 275 basis points. The OID was 99.75. During the period ended June 30, 2022, Griffon prepaid $300,000 aggregate principal amount of the Term Loan B, which permanently reduced the outstanding balance. The Term Loan B facility requires quarterly payments equal to 0.25% of the outstanding principal amount, or $2,000, which began with the quarter ended June 30, 2022, and a balloon payment due at maturity.

Griffon's purchase obligations, which are generally for the purchase of goods and services in the ordinary course of business over the next twelve months is approximately $184,422. Griffon uses blanket purchase orders to communicate expected requirements to certain vendors. Purchase obligations reflect those purchase orders in which the commitment is considered to be firm.

Griffon rents real property and equipment under operating leases expiring at various dates. Operating lease obligations over the next twelve months is approximately $40,998. Refer to Note 21 - Leases.

Customers

A small number of customers account for, and are expected to continue to account for, a substantial portion of Griffon’s consolidated revenue. In 2022, Home Depot represented 13% of Griffon’s consolidated revenue, 19% of CPP's revenue and 7% of HBP's revenue.

No other customer exceeded 10% or more of consolidated revenue. Future operating results will continue to substantially depend on the success of Griffon’s largest customers and our relationships with them. Orders from these customers are subject to change and may fluctuate materially. The loss of all or a portion of volume from any one of these customers could have a material adverse impact on Griffon’s liquidity and operations.


SUPPLEMENTAL GUARANTOR FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Griffon’s Senior Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally by Clopay Corporation, The AMES Companies, Inc., Clopay AMES Holding Corp., ClosetMaid LLC, AMES Hunter Holdings Corporation, Hunter Fan Company, CornellCookson, LLC and Cornell Real Estate Holdings, LLC, all of which are indirectly 100% owned by Griffon. In accordance with Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act, presented below are summarized financial information of the Parent (Griffon) subsidiaries and the Guarantor subsidiaries as of September 30, 2022 and September 30, 2021 and for the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021. All intercompany balances and transactions between subsidiaries under Parent and subsidiaries under the Guarantor have been eliminated. The information presented below excludes eliminations necessary to arrive at the information on a consolidated basis. The summarized information excludes financial information of the Non-Guarantors, including earnings from and investments in these entities. The financial information may not necessarily be indicative of the results of operations or financial position of the guarantor companies or non-guarantor companies had they operated as independent entities. The guarantor companies and the non-guarantor companies include the consolidated financial results of their wholly-owned subsidiaries accounted for under the equity method.

The indentures relating to the Senior Notes (the “Indentures”) contain terms providing that, under certain limited circumstances, a guarantor will be released from its obligations to guarantee the Senior Notes.  These circumstances include (i) a sale of at least a majority of the stock, or all or substantially all the assets, of the subsidiary guarantor as permitted by the Indentures; (ii) a public equity offering of a subsidiary guarantor that qualifies as a “Minority Business” as defined in the Indentures (generally, a business the EBITDA of which constitutes less than 50% of the segment adjusted EBITDA of the Company for the most recently ended four fiscal quarters), and that meets certain other specified conditions as set forth in the Indentures; (iii) the designation of a guarantor as an “unrestricted subsidiary” as defined in the Indentures, in compliance with the terms of the Indentures; (iv) Griffon exercising its right to defease the Senior Notes, or to otherwise discharge its obligations under the Indentures, in each case in accordance with the terms of the Indentures; and (v) upon obtaining the requisite consent of the holders of the Senior Notes.

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Summarized Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss)

For the Year EndedFor the Year Ended
September 30, 2022September 30, 2021
Parent CompanyGuarantor CompaniesParent CompanyGuarantor Companies
Net sales$— $2,301,215 $— $1,727,074 
Gross profit$— $752,982 $— $459,879 
Income (loss) from operations$(43,492)$(127,982)$(22,321)$135,510 
Equity in earnings of Guarantor subsidiaries$(184,618)$— $75,769 $— 
Net income (loss)$(74,423)$(184,618)$(40,047)$75,769 

Summarized Balance Sheet Information

For the Year EndedFor the Year Ended
September 30, 2022September 30, 2021
Parent CompanyGuarantor CompaniesParent CompanyGuarantor Companies
Current assets$49,238 $915,329 $116,260 $746,371 
Non-current assets15,571 1,393,864 15,782 999,138 
Total assets$64,809 $2,309,193 $132,042 $1,745,509 
Current liabilities$78,635 $275,165 $41,334 $321,363 
Long-term debt1,538,235 12,886 998,787 $14,482 
Other liabilities4,331 322,224 43,337 $156,694 
Total liabilities$1,621,201 $610,275 $1,083,458 $492,539 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of Griffon’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. of America (“GAAP”) requires the use of estimates, assumptions, judgments and subjective interpretations of accounting principles that have an impact on assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. These estimates can also affect supplemental information contained in public disclosures of Griffon, including information regarding contingencies, risk and its financial condition. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are evaluated on an ongoing basis and based on historical experience, current conditions and various other assumptions, and form the basis for estimating the carrying values of assets and liabilities, as well as identifying and assessing the accounting treatment for commitments and contingencies. Actual results may materially differ from these estimates.

An estimate is considered to be critical if it is subjective and if changes in the estimate using different assumptions would result in a material impact on Griffon’s financial position or results of operations. The following have been identified as the most critical accounting policies and estimates:

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue when performance obligations identified under the terms of contracts with its customers are satisfied. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service, or a bundle of goods or services, to the customer, and is the unit of accounting. A contract with a customer is an agreement which both parties have approved, that creates enforceable rights and obligations, has commercial substance and with respect to which payment terms are identified and collectability is probable. Once the Company has entered into a contract or purchase order, it is evaluated to identify performance obligations. For each performance obligation, revenue is recognized when control of the promised products is transferred to the customer, or services are satisfied under the contract or purchase order, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those products or services (the transaction price).

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A contract's transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when each performance obligation is satisfied. A majority of the Company’s contracts have a single performance obligation which represents, in most cases, the product being sold to the customer. To a lesser extent, some contracts include multiple performance obligations such as a product, the related installation, and extended warranty services. These contracts require judgment in determining the number of performance obligations. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, judgment is required to determine whether performance obligations specified in these contacts are distinct and should be accounted for as separate revenue transactions for recognition purposes. In these types of contracts, the Company allocates the total transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or services underlying each performance obligation. The Company uses an observable price to determine the stand-alone selling price for separate performance obligations or a cost plus margin approach when one is not available. The transaction price includes variable consideration, such as discounts and volume rebates, when it is probable that a significant reversal of revenue recognized will not occur. Variable consideration is determined using either the expected value or the most likely amount of consideration to be received based on historical experience and the specific facts and circumstances at the time of evaluation.
The Company’s performance obligations are recognized at a point in time related to the manufacture and sale of a broad range of products and components, and revenue is recognized when title, and risk and rewards of ownership, have transferred to the customer, which is generally upon shipment.
A majority of the Company's revenue is short cycle in nature with shipments occurring within one year from order and does not include a material long-term financing component, implicitly or explicitly. Payment terms generally range between 15 to 90 days and vary by the location of the business, the type of products manufactured to be sold and the volume of products sold, among other factors.
The Company recognizes revenue from product sales when all factors are met, including when control of a product transfers to the customer upon its shipment, completion of installation, testing, certification or other substantive acceptance required under the contract. Other than standard product warranty provisions, sales arrangements provide for no other significant post-shipment obligations on the Company. From time-to-time and for certain customers, rebates and other sales incentives, promotional allowances or discounts are offered, typically related to customer purchase volumes, all of which are fixed or determinable and are classified as a reduction of revenue and recorded at the time of sale. Griffon provides for sales returns and allowances based upon historical returns experience. The Company includes shipping costs billed to customers in revenue and the related shipping costs in either Cost of Goods and Services and Selling, general and administrative expenses, as applicable.

The majority of the Company’s contracts offer assurance-type warranties in connection with the sale of a product to a customer. Assurance-type warranties provide a customer with assurance that the related product will function as the parties intended because it complies with agreed-upon specifications. Such warranties do not represent a separate performance obligation.
Payment terms vary depending on the type and location of the customer and the products or services offered. Generally, the period between the time revenue is recognized and the time payment is due is not significant. Shipping and handling charges are not considered a separate performance obligation. Additionally, all taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected from a customer (e.g., sales, use, value added, and some excise taxes) are excluded from revenue.
Inventories

Inventories, stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out or average) or net realizable value, include material, labor and manufacturing overhead costs.

Griffon’s businesses typically do not require inventory that is susceptible to becoming obsolete or dated. In general, HBP produces residential and commercial sectional garage doors, commercial rolling steel door and grille products, and CPP produces long-handled tools and landscaping products, storage and organizational products and residential, industrial and commercial fans, all in response to orders from customers of retailers and dealers or based on expected orders, as applicable.

Warranty Accruals

Direct customer and end-user warranties are provided on certain products. These warranties cover manufacturing defects that would prevent the product from performing in line with its intended and marketed use. The terms of such warranties vary by product line and generally provide for the repair or replacement of the defective product. Warranty claims data is collected and analyzed with a focus on the historical amount of claims, the products involved, the amount of time between the warranty claims and the products’ respective sales and the amount of current sales. Based on such analysis, warranty accruals are recorded as an increase to cost of sales and regularly reviewed for adequacy.
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Stock-based Compensation

Griffon has issued stock-based compensation to certain employees, officers and directors in the form of restricted stock and restricted stock units.

Compensation expense for restricted stock and restricted stock units is recognized ratably over the required service period based on the fair value of the grant, calculated as the number of shares or units granted multiplied by the stock price on the date of grant, and for performance shares or units, the likelihood of achieving the performance criteria. For certain restricted stock grants with a performance metric related to Griffon's stock price, the company performs a valuation as of the date of grant and recognizes the expense over the vesting period. The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur.

Expected Loss Allowances for Discount, Doubtful Account and Returns

Trade receivables are recorded at their stated amount, less allowances for discounts, doubtful accounts and returns. The expected loss allowance represents estimated uncollectible receivables associated with potential customer defaults on contractual obligations (usually due to customers’ potential insolvency), discounts related to early payment of accounts receivables by customers and estimates for returns. The expected loss allowance for doubtful accounts includes amounts for certain customers in which a risk of default has been specifically identified, as well as an amount for customer defaults, based on a formula, when it is determined the risk of some default is probable and estimable, but cannot yet be associated with specific customers. Allowance for discounts and returns are recorded as a reduction of revenue and the provision related to the allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded in SG&A expenses.

Acquisitions

Acquired businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting which requires, among other things, that most assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recognized at their fair values as of the acquisition date and that the fair value of acquired in-process research and development be recorded on the balance sheet. Related transaction costs are expensed as incurred. Any excess of the purchase price over the assigned values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.

Goodwill, Long-Lived Intangible and Tangible Assets, and Impairment

As of September 30, 2022, the balance of goodwill on our balance sheet is $335,790 and indefinite-lived intangibles representing our trademarks is $399,668. We test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment at least annually in the fourth quarter, and more frequently whenever events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value below the carrying amount. Such events or changes in circumstance include significant deterioration in overall economic conditions, changes in the business climate in which our reporting units operate, a decline in our market capitalization, operating performance indicators, when some portion of a reporting unit is disposed of or classified as held for sale, or when a change in the composition of reporting units occurs for other reasons, such as a change in operating segments. To test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, we may perform both a qualitative assessment and quantitative assessment. If we elect to perform a qualitative assessment, we consider operating results as well as circumstances impacting the operations or cash flows of the reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible assets, including macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions and reporting unit events and circumstances. For the quantitative test, the assessment is based on both an income-based and market-based valuation approach. If it is determined that an impairment exists, we recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount of the reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its estimated fair value.

Under the income-based approach, we determine the fair value of a reporting unit by using discounted cash flows that require significant judgement and assumptions, such as our best estimate of future revenue, operating costs, cash flows, expected long-term cash flow growth rates (terminal value growth rates), and risk adjusted discount rates. Under the market-based approach, we determine the fair value of a reporting unit by applying those multiples exhibited by comparable publicly traded companies and those multiples paid in acquisitions of peer company transactions to the financial results of the reporting units. We then compare the fair value estimates resulting from the income and market-based valuations to the sum of Griffon’s market capitalization and net debt position to assess the reasonableness of the implied control premium. We determine the fair value of indefinite-lived intangible assets by using the relief from royalty method, which estimates the value of a trademark by discounting to present value the hypothetical royalty payments that are saved by owning the asset rather than licensing it.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, we performed a qualitative assessment of the HBP reporting unit and determined that indicators that the fair value was less than the carrying amount were not present. However, indicators of impairment were present for our CPP reporting units driven by a decrease in comparable company market multiples and an increase in interest rates and the related impact on weighted average cost of capital rates. As such, in connection with the preparation of our
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financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, we performed a quantitative assessment of the CPP reporting units using both an income-based and market-based approach. The impairment tests resulted in a pre-tax, non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $342,027. Further, we compared the estimated fair values of the CPP indefinite lived intangibles to their carrying amounts which resulted in a pre-tax, non-cash impairment charge of $175,000. A 100-basis point increase in the discount rate would have resulted in an additional impairment charge to our indefinite-lived intangible assets of $34,000.

We performed a qualitative assessment as of September 30, 2021, and 2020, as the estimated fair values of each reporting unit significantly exceeded the carrying amount based on our baseline quantitative assessment, which was performed as of March 31, 2020. Our qualitative assessment determined that indicators that the fair value of each reporting unit was less than the carrying amount were not present. We performed a qualitative assessment as of September 30, 2021, and 2020 considering all the above factors and determined that indefinite-lived intangibles fair values were greater than their book values.

Long-lived assets, such as customer relationships and software, and tangible assets, primarily property, plant and equipment, are amortized over their expected useful lives, which involve significant assumptions and estimates. We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount of our long-lived assets, including amortizable intangible assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of such assets based on the expectations of undiscounted cash flows attributable to the asset group. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, a loss would be recognized for the difference between the fair value and the carrying amount. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, we tested long-lived intangible and tangible assets for impairment by comparing estimated future undiscounted cash flows of each CPP asset group to the carrying amount of the asset group and determined that an impairment did not exist. No event or indicator of impairment existed for the HBP assets groups.

Fair value estimates are based on assumptions believed to be reasonable at the time, but such assumptions are subject to inherent uncertainty. Actual results may differ materially from those estimates. Any changes in key assumptions or management judgment with respect to a reporting unit or its prospects, which may result from a decline in Griffon’s stock price, a change in market conditions, market trends, interest rates or other factors outside of Griffon’s control, or significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, could result in a significantly different estimate of the fair value of Griffon’s reporting units, which could result in an impairment charge in the future.

Leases

On October 1, 2019, the Company adopted the Accounting Standards Codifications ("ASC") Topic 842, Leases, which requires the recording of operating lease Right-of-Use ("ROU") assets and operating lease liabilities. Finance leases were not impacted by the adoption of ASC Topic 842, as finance lease liabilities and the corresponding assets were already recorded in the balance sheet under the previous guidance, ASC Topic 840. The Company has elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, allows us to carry forward the historical lease classification. We also elected a practical expedient to determine the reasonably certain lease term.

The Company applied the modified retrospective approach, whereby the cumulative effect of adoption is recognized as of the date of adoption and comparative prior periods are not retrospectively adjusted. As a result, upon adoption, we recognized ROU assets of $163,552 and lease liabilities of $163,676 associated with our operating leases. The standard had no material impact to retained earnings or on our Consolidated Statements of Income or Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. We use the implicit rate when readily determinable. For leases existing as of October 1, 2019, we have elected to use the remaining lease term as of the adoption date in determining the incremental borrowing rate. Our determination of the lease term may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option.

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. The ROU assets and short and long-term liabilities associated with our operating leases are shown as separate line items on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Finance leases are included in property, plant, and equipment, net, other accrued liabilities, and other non-current liabilities.

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For operating leases, fixed lease payments are recognized as operating lease cost on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases and impaired operating leases, the ROU asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term, along with recognition of interest expense associated with accretion of the lease liability. For leases with a lease term of 12 months or less (a "Short-term" lease), any fixed lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over such term, and are not recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Variable lease cost for both operating and finance leases, if any, is recognized as incurred. The Company has lease agreements that contain both lease and non-lease components. For real estate leases, we account for lease components together with non-lease components (e.g., common-area maintenance).

Restructuring Reserves

From time to time, Griffon will establish restructuring reserves at an operation. These reserves, for both termination and facility related exit costs, require the use of estimates. Though Griffon believes the estimates made are reasonable, they could differ materially from the actual costs.

Income Taxes

Griffon’s effective tax rate is based on income, statutory tax rates and tax planning opportunities available in the various jurisdictions in which Griffon operates. For interim financial reporting, the annual tax rate is estimated based on projected taxable income for the full year, and a quarterly income tax provision is recorded in accordance with the anticipated annual rate. As the year progresses, the annual tax rate is refined as new information becomes available, including year-to-date financial results. This process often results in changes to the effective tax rate throughout the year. Significant judgment is required in determining the effective tax rate and in evaluating tax positions.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets represent items to be used as a tax deduction or credit in future tax returns for which a tax benefit has been recorded in the income statement. The Company assesses whether a valuation allowance should be established against its deferred tax assets based on consideration of all available evidence, both positive and negative, using a more likely than not standard. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of recent losses; a forecast of future profitability; the duration of statutory carryback and carryforward periods; the Company's experience with tax attributes expiring unused; and tax planning alternatives. The likelihood that the deferred tax asset balance will be recovered from future taxable income is assessed at least quarterly, and the valuation allowance, if any, is adjusted accordingly.

Tax benefits are recognized for an uncertain tax position when, in management’s judgment, it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination by a taxing authority. For a tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount that is judged to have a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority. The liability associated with unrecognized tax benefits is adjusted periodically due to changing circumstances, such as the progress of tax audits, case law developments and new or emerging legislation. Such adjustments are recognized in the period in which they are identified. The effective tax rate includes the net impact of changes in the liability for unrecognized tax benefits and subsequent adjustments as considered appropriate by management. A number of years may elapse before a particular matter for which Griffon has recorded a liability related to an unrecognized tax benefit is audited and finally resolved. The number of years with open tax audits varies by jurisdiction. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular tax matter, Griffon believes its liability for unrecognized tax benefits is adequate. Favorable resolution of an unrecognized tax benefit could be recognized as a reduction in Griffon’s tax provision and effective tax rate in the period of resolution. Unfavorable settlement of an unrecognized tax benefit may require the use of cash in the period of resolution. The liability for unrecognized tax benefits is generally presented as non-current. However, if it is anticipated that a cash settlement will occur within one year, that portion of the liability is presented as current. Interest and penalties recognized on the liability for unrecognized tax benefits is recorded as income tax expense.

Pension Benefits

Griffon sponsors defined and supplemental benefit pension plans for certain active and retired employees. Annual amounts relating to these plans are recorded based on actuarial projections, which include various actuarial assumptions, including discount rates, assumed rates of return, compensation increases and turnover rates. The actuarial assumptions used to determine pension liabilities, assets and expense are reviewed annually and modified based on current economic conditions and trends. The expected return on plan assets is determined based on the nature of the plans’ investments and expectations for long-term rates of return. The discount rate used to measure obligations is based on a corporate bond spot-rate yield curve that matches projected future benefit payments, with the appropriate spot rate applicable to the timing of the projected future benefit
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payments. Assumptions used in determining Griffon’s obligations under the defined benefit pension plans are believed to be reasonable, based on experience and advice from independent actuaries; however, differences in actual experience or changes in the assumptions may materially affect Griffon’s financial position or results of operations.

All of the defined benefit plans are frozen and have ceased accruing benefits.

New Accounting Standards

For a discussion of the new accounting standards impacting the Company, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Interest Rates

Griffon’s exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to variable interest rate debt and investments in cash and equivalents.

Griffon's amended and restated Credit Agreement references a benchmark rate with SONIA or SOFR. In addition, certain other
of Griffon’s credit facilities have a LIBOR and BBSY (Bank Bill Swap Rate) based variable interest rate. Due to the current
and expected level of borrowings under these facilities, a 100 basis point change in SONIA, SOFR, BBSY, or LIBOR would
not have a material impact on Griffon’s results of operations or liquidity.

Foreign Exchange

Griffon conducts business in various non-U.S. countries, primarily in Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand and China; therefore, changes in the value of the currencies of these countries affect the financial position and cash flows when translated into U.S. Dollars. Griffon has generally accepted the exposure to exchange rate movements relative to its non-U.S. operations. Griffon may, from time to time, hedge its currency risk exposures. A change of 10% in the value of all applicable foreign currencies would not have a material effect on Griffon’s financial position and cash flows.

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The financial statements of Griffon and its subsidiaries and the report thereon of Grant Thornton LLP (PCAOB ID 248) are included herein:

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.  
Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2022 and 2021.  
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the years ended September 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020.  
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended September 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020.  
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity for the years ended September 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020.  
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.  
Schedule II – Valuation and Qualifying Account.  

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Board of Directors and Shareholders
Griffon Corporation

Opinions on the financial statements and internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Griffon Corporation (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, and the related notes and financial statement schedule included under Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2022, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”).

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2022, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by COSO.

Basis for opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Our audit of, and opinion on, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not include the internal control over financial reporting of Hunter Fan Company (“Hunter”), a wholly-owned subsidiary, whose financial statements reflect total assets and revenues constituting 31 percent and 9 percent, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended September 30, 2022. As indicated in Management’s Report, Hunter Fan Company was acquired during 2022. Management’s assertion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting excluded internal control over financial reporting of Hunter Fan Company.




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Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical audit matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Annual Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets Impairment Testing

As described further in notes 1 and 7 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company tests goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets at least annually at the reporting unit level. The Company performed its annual impairment testing of goodwill as of September 30, 2022, comparing the fair value of the Company’s reporting units to the respective reporting unit’s carrying value, including goodwill. For the Consumer Professional Products (“CPP”) and Hunter reporting units and associated indefinite-lived intangible assets, indicators of impairment were present, and as such, the Company performed a quantitative assessment. The fair value of CPP and Hunter were determined using a combination of the income and market-based valuation approach methodologies, which include the present value of expected future cash flows and the use of market assumptions specific to each reporting unit. The Company used prospective financial information to which discount rates were applied to calculate the fair value. Similarly to goodwill, the Company tested indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment as of September 30, 2022. The Company utilized a relief from royalty method to calculate and compare the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible assets to their book value, which includes the use of market assumptions specific to each reporting unit. As a result of the impairment tests, the Company recorded goodwill and intangible asset impairment as of September 30, 2022. We identified the Company’s impairment testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for CPP and Hunter as a critical audit matter.

The principal considerations for our determination that the impairment testing is a critical audit matter are as follows: The determination of the fair value of reporting units and indefinite-lived intangibles require management to make significant estimates and assumptions related to forecasts of future cash flows and discount rates. This requires management to evaluate historical results and expectations of future operating performance based on relevant information available to them regarding expectations of industry performance, as well as expectations for entity-specific performance. In addition, determining the discount rate requires management to evaluate the appropriate risk premium based on their judgment of industry and entity-specific risks. Management also used a selection of comparable companies that correspond to each reporting unit to derive a market-based multiple. As disclosed by management, changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on the fair value of the reporting units and indefinite-lived assets. In turn, auditing these judgments and assumptions requires a high degree of auditor judgment.





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Our audit procedures related to the quantitative impairment testing included the following: We tested the design and operating effectiveness of controls relating to the impairment testing, including the Company’s ability to develop the estimates utilized in calculating the fair value of the CPP and Hunter reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets. Such estimates included prospective financial information, long-term growth rates, discount rates and weighted average cost of capital. With the assistance of valuation specialists, we evaluated the appropriateness of the valuation methodology utilized and assessed the appropriateness of inputs utilized. We evaluated the qualifications of those responsible for preparing the calculations of fair values. We tested the inputs, significant judgments and estimates utilized in performing the annual impairment test, which included comparing management’s judgments and estimates to industry and market data. We tested the inputs, significant judgments and estimates, as follows: a) tested prospective financial information and long-term growth rates by comparing to historical trends and industry expectations, performed a sensitivity analysis over growth rates and assessed management’s historical ability to accurately forecast; b) tested discount and royalty rates by comparing to historical rates and industry expectations, compared rates to market comparable companies, including comparable licensing agreements and independently calculated discount rates for comparison to those used by management; and c) tested weighted average cost of capital by analyzing the implied discount rate and independently calculated a weighted-average discount rate using individual discount rates and compared to the rate utilized by management.


/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2006.

New York, New York
November 17 , 2022

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GRIFFON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except per share data)

At September 30, 2022At September 30, 2021
CURRENT ASSETS  
Cash and equivalents$